Central venous catheter
A catheter (tube) that is passed through a vein to end up in the thoracic (chest) portion of the vena cava (the large vein returning blood to the heart) or in the right atrium of the heart. Central venous catheters have a number of different uses. A central venous catheter allows concentrated solutions to be infused with less risk of complications. It permits monitoring of special blood pressures including the central venous pressure, the pulmonary artery pressure, and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressures. A central venous catheter can be used for the estimation of cardiac output and vascular resistance. The near end of the catheter may also be connected to a chamber for injections given over periods of months. A central venous catheter saves having to have frequent small injections or "drips" placed in the arms. It may also allow a patient to have medicine or fluids at home instead of in the hospital. The central venous catheters may be inserted for the short term or long term. There are two types of long term central catheters: the Hickman line (also called a cuffed or tunnelled line) and the reservoir long line that ends in a rubber bulb or reservoir. The possible complications of a central venous catheter include air in the chest (pneumothorax) due to a punctured lung, bleeding in the chest (hemothorax), fluid in the chest (hydrothorax), ble4eding into or under the skin (hematoma) and infection. If the line becomes disconnected, air may enter the blood and cause problems with breathing or a stroke. A central venous catheter is also called a central venous line. Sometimes, the "venous" is omitted and it is called a central catheter or central line.

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a catheter introduced via a large vein, such as the femoral, internal jugular, or subclavian, into the superior vena cava or right atrium to administer parenteral fluids (as in hyperalimentation) or medications or to measure central venous pressure. This type of catheter can also be used for short-term hemodialysis.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • central venous catheter — an intravenous catheter for insertion directly into a large vein, most commonly the subclavian vein, during its passage under the clavicle, or the jugular in the neck. Such catheters can also be inserted into the femoral vein at the groin. They… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • central venous catheter — (Medicine) small and flexible plastic tube placed into the large vein above the heart …   English contemporary dictionary

  • central venous pressure — n the venous pressure of the right atrium of the heart obtained by inserting a catheter into the median cubital vein and advancing it to the right atrium through the superior vena cava abbr. CVP * * * (CVP) the venous pressure as measured at the… …   Medical dictionary

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  • Catheter, central venous — A catheter (tube) that is passed through a vein to end up in the thoracic (chest) portion of the vena cava (the large vein returning blood to the heart) or in the right atrium of the heart. Central venous catheters have a number of different uses …   Medical dictionary

  • Central venous line — A catheter (tube) that is passed through a vein to end up in the thoracic (chest) portion of the vena cava (the large vein returning blood to the heart) or in the right atrium of the heart. Central venous lines have a number of different uses. A… …   Medical dictionary

  • Venous catheter, central — A catheter (a tube) that is passed through a vein to end up in the thoracic (chest) portion of the vena cava (the large vein returning blood to the heart) or in the right atrium of the heart. Central venous catheters have a diversity of uses.… …   Medical dictionary

  • central venous pressure — CVP the pressure of blood within the right atrium. Measurement of CVP is obtained by catheterization of the right side of the heart; the catheter is attached to a manometer. CVP measurements are used to estimate circulatory function and blood… …   The new mediacal dictionary

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