Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome
A genetic disorder that makes XY fetuses insensitive (unresponsive) to androgens (male hormones). Instead, they are born looking externally like normal girls. Internally, there is a short blind-pouch vagina and no uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries. There are testes in the abdomen or the inguinal canal. The complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is usually detected at puberty when a girl should but does not begin to menstruate. Many of the girls with the syndrome have no pubic or axillary (armpit) hair. They have luxuriant scalp hair without temporal (male-pattern) balding. They are sterile and cannot bear children. They are at high risk for osteoporosis and so should take estrogen replacement therapy. The gene for the syndrome is on the X chromosome in band Xq11-q12. The gene codes for the androgen receptor (also called the dihydrotestosterone receptor). This gene is mutant in the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Because of the mutation, the cells cannot respond to androgen. If a woman has the mutation on one of her X chromosomes, the risk for each of her XY offspring to receive the gene and have the syndrome is one-half (50%). There are also partial androgen insensitivity syndromes. They usually result in micropenis with hypospadias and gynecomastia (male breast development). These conditions (which include a disorder called Reifenstein syndrome) are also due to mutations in the androgen receptor gene. The complete androgen insensitivity syndrome was once referred to as testicular feminization (TFM). The name "complete androgen insensitivity syndrome" is scientifically accurate and is more satisfactory to patients and their families.

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(CAIS) an extreme type of androgen insensitivity syndrome with male pseudohermaphroditism, in which an individual is phenotypically female but has XY chromosomes; this results from mutations in the gene for the androgen receptor. There may be a rudimentary uterus and tubes, but the gonads are typically testes, which may be abdominal or inguinal in position. Called also complete androgen resistance, feminizing testes syndrome, Morris syndrome, testicular feminization, and testicular feminization syndrome.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome — Classification and external resources AIS results when the function of the androgen receptor (AR) is impaired. The AR protein (pictured) mediates the effects of androgens in the human body. ICD 10 E …   Wikipedia

  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome, complete — A genetic disorder that makes XY fetuses insensitive (unresponsive) to androgens (male hormones). Instead, they are born looking externally like normal girls. Internally, there is a short blind pouch vagina and no uterus, fallopian tubes or… …   Medical dictionary

  • Syndrome, complete androgen insensitivity — A genetic disorder that makes XY fetuses insensitive (unresponsive) to androgens (male hormones). Instead, they are born looking externally like normal girls. Internally, there is a short blind pouch vagina and no uterus, fallopian tubes or… …   Medical dictionary

  • androgen insensitivity syndrome — resistance of target organs in males to the action of androgens; the result is any of a spectrum from normal appearing male phenotypes to female phenotype; see complete androgen insensitivity s., partial androgen insensitivity s., and mild… …   Medical dictionary

  • androgen insensitivity syndrome — AIS an X linked (see sex linked) disorder in which the body does not react to androgens because of structural abnormalities in androgen receptors. In its most extreme form, complete AIS (formerly known as testicular feminization syndrome), there… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome — Classification and external resources AIS results when the function of the androgen receptor (AR) is impaired. The AR protein (pictured) mediates the effects of androgens in the human body. ICD 10 …   Wikipedia

  • Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome — Classification and external resources AIS results when the function of the androgen receptor (AR) is impaired. The AR protein (pictured) mediates the effects of androgens in the human body. ICD 10 E …   Wikipedia

  • partial androgen insensitivity syndrome — a type of androgen insensitivity syndrome of less severity than the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, with genetic males having decreased sensitivity of target tissues to androgen. Affected boys are often born with ambiguous genitalia,… …   Medical dictionary

  • complete androgen resistance — complete androgen insensitivity syndrome …   Medical dictionary

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