Genome
All of the genetic information, the entire genetic complement, all of the hereditary material possessed by an organism. Humans and many other higher animals actually have two genomes, which together make up the total genome: {{}}A chromosomal genome — inside the nucleus of the cell in the familiar form of chromosomes; and A mitochondrial genome — outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm of the cell, usually in the form of one round chromosome (the mitochondrial chromosome). The historical tendency has been to focus on the human genome somewhat to the exclusion of the genomes of other organisms. This anthropomorphic view of genomics is perhaps understandable but is a narrow view of the world. There are many other genomes including, for example, the: {{}}Arabidopsis thaliana (mustard-weed) genome Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm) genome Drosophila (fruit fly) genome Haemophilus influenzae (bacterial) genome Mouse genome Rice genome Vibrio cholerae (cholera bacteria) genome Yeast genome The word genome dates to 1930. It was cobbled from the German Gen, gene + -om (from the Greek soma, body). In the 1990s genome went from being a highly specialized term not even in much usage in genetics to a word that is now in common general currency. As with all revolutions, the Genetics Revolution has ushered in a revolution in words.
* * *
1. A complete set of chromosomes derived from one parent, the haploid number of a gamete. 2. The total gene complement of a set of chromosomes found in higher life forms (the haploid set in a eukaryotic cell), or the functionally similar but simpler linear arrangements found in bacteria and viruses. SEE ALSO: Human G. Project. [gene + chromosome]

* * *

ge·nome 'jē-.nōm also ge·nom -.näm n one haploid set of chromosomes with the genes they contain

* * *

n.
the total genetic material of an organism, comprising the genes contained in its chromosomes; sometimes the term is used for the basic haploid set of chromosomes of an organism. The human genome comprises 23 pairs of chromosomes (see Human Genome Project).

* * *

ge·nome (jeґnōm) [gene + chromosome] the entirety of the genetic information encoded by the nucleotide sequence of an organism, cell, organelle, or virus; it is DNA in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and DNA or RNA in viruses. In a human being, the genome size is approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA and approximately 25,000 genes. genomic adj

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Genome — Génome De l ADN à la vie. Le génome est l ensemble du matériel génétique d un individu ou d une espèce codé dans son ADN (à l exception de certains virus dont le génome est porté par des molécules d ARN). Il contient en particulier toutes les… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • GÉNOME — LA NOTION de génome, définie à l’origine par les généticiens comme l’ensemble des déterminants héréditaires (gènes) propre à une espèce donnée, s’est beaucoup compliquée avec l’apparition des méthodes permettant l’identification, l’isolement, le… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • genome — genome. См. геном. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • genome — sum total of genes in a set, 1930, modeled on Ger. genom, coined 1920 by German botanist Hans Winkler, from gen gene + (chromos)om chromosome …   Etymology dictionary

  • genome — ► NOUN Biology 1) the haploid set of chromosomes of an organism. 2) the complete set of genetic material of an organism. DERIVATIVES genomic adjective. ORIGIN blend of GENE(Cf. ↑gene) and CHROMOSOME(Cf. ↑ …   English terms dictionary

  • genome — [jē′nōm΄] n. [Ger genom < gen, GENE + ( chromos)om, CHROMOSOME] 1. one complete haploid set of chromosomes of an organism 2. the total genetic information present in a somatic cell and unique to any specific organism genomic [jē′nō′mik,… …   English World dictionary

  • Genome — For a non technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to genetics. For other uses, see Genome (disambiguation). Part of a series on Genetics Key components Chromosome DNA • …   Wikipedia

  • Génome — De l ADN à la vie. Le génome est l ensemble du matériel génétique d un individu ou d une espèce codé dans son ADN (à l exception de certains virus dont le génome est porté par des molécules d ARN). Il contient en particulier toutes les séquences… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • genome — UK [ˈdʒiːnəʊm] / US [ˈdʒɪˌnoʊm] noun [countable] Word forms genome : singular genome plural genomes biology the total amount of genetic information in the chromosomes of a living thing, including its genes and dna the human genome …   English dictionary

  • genome — The genome is the entire DNA content of an organism. A large proportion of the genome is made of sequences of DNA that are not genes, i.e. play no part in determining the phenotype …   Philosophy dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”