Inflammation, bladder
Also referred to as cystitis, this form of inflammation (please see the entry to Inflammation) affects the urinary bladder. Bladder inflammation (cystitis) can be due, for example, to infection from bacteria that go up (ascend) the urethra (the canal from the outside) to the bladder. Symptoms include a frequent need to urinate, often accompanied by a burning sensation. As cystitis progresses, blood may be observed in the urine and the patient may suffer cramps after urination. In young children, attempts to avoid the pain of cystitis can be a cause for daytime wetting (eneuresis). Treatment includes avoiding irritants, such as perfumed soaps, near the urethral opening; increased fluid intake; and antibiotics. Untreated cystitis can lead to scarring and the formation of stones when urine is retained for long periods of time to avoid painful urination. Additional information: Bladder inflammation (cystitis) most commonly occurs because of bacterial infection of the bladder. Some people are at more risk for bladder and other urinary tract infections (UTIs) than others. Men more then women. One woman in 5 develops a UTI during her lifetime. Not everyone with a UTI has symptoms. Common symptoms of UTIs include a frequent urge to urinate and a painful, burning when urinating. Underlying conditions that impair the normal urinary flow can lead to more complicated UTIs. Another form of bladder inflammation, interstitial cystitis (IC) involves inflammation or irritation of the bladder wall. This can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, and even ulcerations and bleeding. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, findings on cystoscopy and biopsy, and eliminating other treatable causes such as infection. Because doctors do not know what causes IC, treatments are aimed at relieving symptoms. Most people are helped for variable periods of time by one or a combination of treatments.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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