- Iron deficiency anemia
- The most common known form of nutritional disorder in the world, iron deficiency results in anemia because iron is necessary to make hemoglobin, key molecule in red blood cells responsible for the transport of oxygen. In iron deficiency anemia, the red cells appear abnormal and are unusually small (microcytic) and pale (hypochromic). The pallor of the red cells reflects their low hemoglobin content. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is highest in children and women of childbearing age (particularly pregnant women). In pregnant women, iron deficiency increases the risk for a preterm delivery and delivering a low-birthweight baby. In children, iron deficiency causes developmental delays, behavioral disturbances, failure to thrive (grow) and increased infections. Iron deficiency is a major problem in developed countries such as the US, Canada, the UK and Europe. In developing countries, iron deficiency anemia is frequently exacerbated by malaria and worm infections. The treatment of iron deficiency anemia , whether it be in children or adults, is with iron and iron-containing foods. Food sources of iron include meat, poultry, eggs, vegetables and cereals (especially those fortified with iron). According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Recommended Dietary Allowances of iron are 15 milligrams per day for women and 10 milligrams per day for men. Do NOT give iron supplements to children unless the doctor recommends it. A cause of iron deficiency anemia is the ulcer bacteria. The successful treatment of infection with Helicobacter pylori (the bacteria associated with irritation of the stomach lining and stomach ulcers) may also resolve iron deficiency
* * *a type of hypochromic microcytic anemia caused by low or absent iron stores and serum iron concentration; there is elevated free erythrocyte porphyrin, low transferrin saturation, elevated transferrin, low serum ferritin, and low hemoglobin concentration. Symptoms may include pallor, angular stomatitis and other oral lesions, gastrointestinal complaints, retinal hemorrhages and exudates, and thinning and brittleness of the nails, occasionally leading to spoon nails (koilonychia).
Medical dictionary. 2011.