substance
Stuff; material. SYN: substantia [TA], matter. [L. substantia, essence, material, fr. sub- sto, to stand under, be present]
- alpha s. SYN: reticular s. (1).
- anterior perforated s. [TA] a region at the base of the brain through which numerous small branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (lenticulostriate arteries) enter the depth of the cerebral hemisphere; it is bordered medially by the optic chasm and anterior half of the optic tract, rostrally and laterally by the lateral olfactory stria; its anteromedial part corresponds to the olfactory tubercle. SYN: substantia perforata anterior [TA], locus perforatus anticus, olfactory area, substantia perforata rostralis.
- autacoid s. SYN: autocoid.
- bacteriotropic s. opsonin or other s. that alters bacterial cells in such a manner that they are more susceptible to phagocytic action.
- basophil s. SYN: Nissl s..
- basophilic s. SYN: Nissl s..
- blood group s. SYN: blood group antigen.
- blood group -specific substances A and B solution of complexes of polysaccharides and amino acid s that reduces the titer of anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins in serum from group O persons; used to render group O blood reasonably safe for transfusion into persons of group A, B, or AB, but does not affect any incompatibility that results from various other factors, such as Rh.
- cementing s. a deposit of amorphous mineralized matrix surrounding the osteons of compact bone.
- central gray s. 1. in general: the predominantly small-celled gray matter adjoining or surrounding the central canal of the spinal cord and the third and fourth ventricles of the brainstem; 2. in particular: the thick sleeve of gray matter surrounding the cerebral sylvian aqueduct in the midbrain, rostrally continuous with the posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus; in sections stained for myelin it stands out from the adjoining tectum and tegmentum by the poverty of its myelinated fibers. SYN: substantia grisea centralis [TA], periaqueductal gray s..
- central and lateral intermediate substances the central gray matter of the spinal cord surrounding the central canal. SYN: anterior gray column, Stilling gelatinous s., substantia gelatinosa centralis.
- chromidial s. SYN: granular endoplasmic reticulum.
- chromophil s. SYN: Nissl s..
- compact s. SYN: compact bone.
- controlled s. a s. subject to the Controlled Substances Act (1970), which regulates the prescribing and dispensing, as well as the manufacturing, storage, sale, or distribution of substances assigned to five schedules according to their 1) potential for or evidence of abuse, 2) potential for psychic or physiologic dependence, 3) contribution to a public health risk, 4) harmful pharmacologic effect, or 5) role as a precursor of other controlled substances.
- cortical s. SYN: cortical bone.
- exophthalmos-producing s. (EPS) a factor found in crude extract of pituitary tissue that produced exophthalmos in laboratory animals (especially fish). Its existence and role in producing exophthalmopathy in Graves disease is questioned.
- filar s. SYN: reticular s. (1).
- gelatinous s. [TA] the apical part of the posterior horn (dorsal horn; posterior gray column) of the spinal cord's gray matter, composed largely of very small nerve cells; its gelatinous appearance is due to its very low content of myelinated nerve fibers; spinal lamina II (of Rexed). SYN: substantia gelatinosa [TA], lamina spinalis II, spinal lamina II, Rolando gelatinous s., Rolando s..
- glandular s. of prostate the glandular tissue of the prostate as distinct from the stroma and capsule. SYN: substantia glandularis prostatae.
- gray s. [TA] SYN: gray matter.
- ground s. the amorphous material in which structural elements occur; in connective tissue, it is composed of proteoglycans, plasma constituents, metabolites, water, and ions present between cells and fibers. SYN: substantia fundamentalis.
- H s. designation given by Sir Thomas Lewis to a diffusible s. in skin, indistinguishable in action from histamine, that is liberated by injury and causes the triple response. SYN: released s..
- innominate s. [TA] the region of the forebrain that lies ventral to the anterior half or so of the lentiform nucleus, extending in the frontal plane from the lateral preopticohypothalamic zone laterally over the optic tract to the amygdala (amygdaloid body); rostrally it tapers off over the dorsal border of the olfactory tubercle, caudally it ends where the internal capsule reaches the surface to form the cerebral peduncle or pes pedunculi. Notable among its polymorphic cell population is the large-celled basal nucleus of Meynert. These magnocellular elements within the i. substantia are present in the medial septum and the diagonal band of Broca, but occur in largest numbers ventral to the globus pallidus. Histochemical evidence indicates that magnocellular elements distribute cholinergic fibers widely in the cerebral cortex and that these cells undergo selective degeneration in Alzheimer disease. SYN: substantia innominata [TA].
- Kendall s. SYN: Kendall compounds, under compound.
- s. of lens of eye [TA] that which constitutes the lens of the eye, composed of a nucleus and a cortex and covered by an epithelium. SYN: substantia lentis [TA].
- medullary s. 1. the lipid material present in the myelin sheath of nerve fibers; SYN: Schwann white s.. 2. medulla of bones and other organs. SYN: substantia medullaris (2).
- müllerian inhibiting s. (MIS) a 535-amino acid glycoprotein secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testis. It is related to inhibin. SYN: anti-müllerian hormone, müllerian inhibiting factor.
- muscular s. of prostate the smooth muscle in the stroma of the prostate. SYN: musculus prostaticus, substantia muscularis prostatae.
- neurosecretory s. the secretion of nerve cell bodies located in the hypothalamus; the s. is transported by way of hypothalamo-hypophysial tract fibers into the neurohypophysis where the terminals of the nerve fibers contain the secretion. As seen in the fibers and terminals with a light microscope, the s. appears as Herring bodies or hyaline bodies of the pituitary. See hyaline bodies of pituitary, under body.
- Nissl s. the material consisting of granular endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes that occurs in nerve cell bodies and dendrites. SYN: basophil s., basophilic s., chromophil s., Nissl bodies, Nissl granules, substantia basophilia, tigroid bodies, tigroid s..
- s. P a peptide neurotransmitter composed of 11 amino acid residues (with the carboxyl group amidated), normally present in minute quantities in the nervous system and intestines of humans and various animals and found in inflamed tissue, that is primarily involved in pain transmission and is one of the most potent compounds affecting smooth muscle (dilation of blood vessel s and contraction of intestine) and thus presumed to play a role in inflammation.
- periaqueductal gray s. SYN: central gray s..
- P s. of Lewis SYN: factor P.
- posterior perforated s. [TA] the bottom of the interpeduncular fossa at the base of the midbrain, extending from the anterior border of the pons forward to the mamillary bodies, and containing numerous openings for the passage of perforating branches of the posterior cerebral arteries. SYN: substantia perforata posterior [TA], locus perforatus posticus, Malacarne space.
- pressor s. SYN: pressor base.
- proper s. substantia propria of cornea, substantia propria membranae tympani, substantia propria of sclera.
- Reichstein s. one of several steroids; e.g., Reichstein s. F (cortisone), Reichstein s. H (corticosterone), Reichstein s. M (cortisol), Reichstein s. Q (cortexone), and Reichstein s. S (cortexolone). SYN: Reichstein compound.
- released s. SYN: H s..
- reticular s. 1. a filamentous plasmatic material, beaded with granules, demonstrable by means of vital staining in the immature red blood cells; SYN: alpha s., filar mass, filar s., substantia reticularis (1), substantia reticulofilamentosa. 2. SYN: reticular formation.
- Schwann white s. SYN: medullary s. (1).
- slow-reacting s. (SRS), slow-reacting s. of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) a liproprotein of low molecular weight composed of leucotrienes that is released in anaphylactic shock and produces slower and more prolonged contraction of muscle than does histamine; it is active in the presence of antihistamines (but not epinephrine) and seems not to occur preformed in mast cells, but as a result of an antigen-antibody reaction on the granules; it induces the effect observed in anaphylactic reactions. Cf.:peptidyl leukotrienes. SYN: slow-reacting factor of anaphylaxis.
- specific capsular s. a soluble type-specific polysaccharide produced during active growth of virulent pneumococci comprising a large part of the capsule. SYN: pneumococcal polysaccharide, soluble specific s., specific soluble polysaccharide, specific soluble sugar.
- spongy s. SYN: substantia spongiosa.
- standard s. a pure, authentic s. used for identification purposes.
- Stilling gelatinous s. SYN: central and lateral intermediate substances.
- threshold s. any material ( e.g., glucose) that is excreted in the urine only when its plasma concentration exceeds a certain value, termed its threshold. SYN: threshold body.
- tigroid s. SYN: Nissl s..
- vasodepressor s. an incompletely characterized chemical, apparently produced during liver damage, that tends to decrease vascular pressures and relax arterial walls.
- white s. SYN: white matter.
- zymoplastic s. SYN: thromboplastin.

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sub·stance 'səb-stən(t)s n
1) physical material from which something is made or which has discrete existence <the \substance of nerve tissue>
2) matter of particular or definite chemical constitution
3) something (as alcohol, methamphetamine, or marijuana) deemed harmful and usu. subject to legal restriction <heroin is a controlled \substance> <\substance abuse>

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sub·stance (subґstəns) [L. substantia] 1. matter with a particular set of characteristics; called also material. 2. the material constituting an organ or body; called also substantia [TA]. 3. psychoactive s.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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