Magnesium
A mineral involved in many processes in the body including nerve signaling, the building of healthy bones, and normal muscle contraction. Magnesium is contained in all unprocessed foods. High concentrations of magnesium are found in nuts, unmilled grains and legumes such as peas and beans. Magnesium deficiency can occur due to inadequate intake or impaired intestinal absorption of magnesium. It is often associated with low calcium (hypocalcemia) and low potassium (hypokalemia). Deficiency of magnesium causes increased irritability of the nervous system with tetany (spasms of the hands and feet, muscular twitching and cramps, spasm of the larynx, etc.). According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Recommended Dietary Allowances of magnesium are 420 milligrams per day for men and 320 milligrams per day for women. The upper limit of magnesium as supplements is 350 milligrams daily, in addition to the magnesium from food and water. Persons with impaired kidney function should be especially careful about their magnesium intake because they can accumulate magnesium, a dangerous situation.
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An alkaline earth element, atomic no. 12, atomic wt. 24.3050, that oxidizes to magnesia; a bioelement, many salts have clinical applications. [Mod. L. fr. G. Magnesia, a region in Thessaly]
- m. aluminum silicate an antacid. SYN: aluminum m. silicate.
- m. bacteriopheophytinate bacteriochlorophyll.
- m. benzoate has been used in gout and rheumatoid arthritis.
- m. carbonate used in gastric and intestinal acidity and as a laxative.
- m. chloride has been used as a laxative.
- m. citrate a laxative; usually administered as an effervescent flavored beverage.
- effervescent m. citrate m. carbonate, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and sugar, moistened with alcohol, passed through a sieve, and dried to a coarse granular powder; used as a laxative.
- effervescent m. sulfate effervescent Epsom salt; m. sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, tartaric acid, and citric acid, moistened, passed through a sieve, and dried to a coarse granular powder; a purgative.
- m. oxide used as an antacid and laxative. SYN: calcined magnesia, magnesia.
- m. peroxide decomposes in water to hydrogen peroxide; used as an ingredient in dentifrices and in antiseptic dusting powder.
- m. phytinates chlorophyll a and b. See entries under chlorophyll.
- m. salicylate a sodium-free salicylate derivative with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic actions; used for relief of mild to moderate pain.
- m. stearate a compound of m. with variable proportions of stearic and palmitic acid s; used in the preparation of tablets, as a lubricant, and as an ingredient in some baby powders.
- m. sulfate active ingredient of most natural laxative waters; used as a promptly acting cathartic in certain poisonings, in the treatment of increased intracranial pressure and edema, as an anticonvulsant in eclampsia (when administered intravenously), and as an anti-inflammatory (when applied locally). SYN: Epsom salts.
- tribasic m. phosphate tertiary m. phosphate, it is used as an antacid but it does not produce systemic alkalization; 1 g is equivalent in neutralizing power to about 0.46 g of sodium bicarbonate.
- m. trisilicate a compound of m. oxide and silicon dioxide with varying proportions of water; occurs in nature as meerschaum, pararepiolite, and repiolite; a gastric antacid.

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mag·ne·sium mag-'nē-zē-əm, -zhəm n a silver-white light malleable ductile metallic element that occurs abundantly in nature (as in bones and seeds and in the form of chlorophyll in the green parts of plants) and is used in metallurgical and chemical processes, in photography, in signaling, and in the manufacture of pyrotechnics because of the intense white light it produces on burning, and in construction esp. in the form of light alloys symbol Mg see ELEMENT (table)

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n.
a metallic element essential to life. The body of an average adult contains about 25 g of magnesium, concentrated mostly in the bones. Magnesium is necessary for the proper functioning of muscle and nervous tissue. It is required as a cofactor for approximately 90 enzymes. A good source of magnesium is green leafy vegetables. Symbol: Mg.

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mag·ne·si·um (Mg) (mag-neґze-əm) [L.] a light, silvery, metallic element; atomic number 12, atomic weight 24.312, specific gravity 1.74. Its salts are essential in nutrition, being required for the activity of many enzymes, especially those concerned with oxidative phosphorylation. It is a component of both intra- and extracellular fluids and is excreted in the urine and feces. The serum level is approximately 2 mEq/liter. Deficiency causes irritability of the nervous system with tetany, vasodilation, convulsions, tremors, depression, and psychotic behavior. Excessive amounts can be toxic; see hypermagnesemia.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • MAGNÉSIUM — Le magnésium est un élément chimique métallique de symbole Mg et de numéro atomique 12. C’est le plus léger des métaux structuraux. Le nom de magnésium vient probablement de celui d’une bourgade d’Asie Mineure, Magnesia, bien connue plusieurs… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Magnesium — Magnésium Pour les articles homonymes, voir Mg. Magnésium …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Magnesium — Mag*ne si*um, n. [NL. & F. See {Magnesia}.] (Chem.) A light silver white metallic element of atomic number 12, malleable and ductile, quite permanent in dry air but tarnishing in moist air. It burns, forming (the oxide) magnesia, with the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Magnesium — Magnesĭum, Magnium, Talzium (chem. Zeichen Mg), metallisches Element, in der Natur weit verbreitet, aber nicht frei, sondern nur in Salzen (Magnesit, Dolomit, Olivin, Talk, Speckstein, Serpentin, Meerschaum, in den Abraumsalzen …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Magnesium — (griech.) Chemisches Element, das silbrig glänzende, sehr reaktionsfähige Metall verbrennt mit blendend weißem Licht zu Magnesiumoxyd. Auf Grund dieser Eigenschaft fand es Verwendung als Blitzlicht. Bis zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts wurde es zu… …   Das Lexikon aus „Bernie's Foto-Programm"

  • Magnesĭum — (Magnium, Talcium), chemisches Zeichen: Mg, Atomgewicht = 158 (O = 100) od. 12 (H = 1) das metallische Radical der Magnesia (Bittererde, Talkerde). Man erhält es, indem man Kalium in einer unten zugeschmolzenen Röhre von hartem Glas, od. in einem …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Magnesium — Magnesium, alter Name des Mangans (s. d.) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Magnesĭum — Mg, Metall, findet sich nicht gediegen, aber sehr verbreitet in verschiedenen Verbindungen. Magnesiumoxyd (Magnesia) bildet mit Tonerde den Spinell; kieselsaure Magnesia bildet den Meerschaum, Talk, Speckstein, Serpentin und findet sich auch im… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Magnesium — Magnesium, Magnium, Talcium, ein aus der Magnesia (M.oxyd), zuerst von H. Davy, sodann von Bussy noch vollständiger dargestelltes, silberweißes, lebhaft glänzendes, sehr dehnbares Metall. Es krystallisirt nach Becquerel in Octaëdern. Vgl.… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • magnesium — Symbol: Mg Atomic number: 12 Atomic weight: 24.312 Silvery metallic element belonging to group 2 of the periodic table (alkaline earth metals). It is essential for living organisms, and is used in a number of light alloys. Chemically very… …   Elements of periodic system

  • magnesium — (n.) silvery white metallic element, 1808, coined by English chemist Sir Humphrey Davy (1778 1829) from white MAGNESIA (Cf. magnesia) (q.v.), in which it was found, + chemical ending ium …   Etymology dictionary

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