Methemoglobinemia
The presence in the blood of methemoglobin, a form of hemoglobin that is useless for carrying oxygen and delivering it to tissues throughout the human body. Since hemoglobin is the key carrier of oxygen in the blood, its replacement by methemoglobin can cause cyanosis (a slate gray-blueness) due to lack of oxygen. A small amount of methemoglobin is normally present in blood but the conversion of a larger fraction of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier, results in perceptible cyanosis. (In more technical terms, methemoglobin is a transformation product of normal oxyhemoglobin. It is created by the oxidation of the ferrous iron present in the heme part of hemoglobin to ferric iron. Ferric iron, in firm union with water, is chemically useless for respiration.) Methemoglobinemia may be acquired anytime in life by exposure to a number of different chemical agents such as nitrites or it may be congenital due a genetic condition: {{}}Hb M disease — the production of any one of a group of mutant hemoglobins known collectively as hemoglobin M ("M" for methemoglobin), or Deficiency of the enzyme methemoglobin reductase which is required for the reduction of methemoglobin to normal oxyhemoglobin. In both kinds of congenital methemoglobinemia, the cyanosis starts in early infancy with no history of lung or heart disease to account for it. However, the patterns of inheritance deficiency are distinctively different — autosomal dominant with Hb M disease versus autosomal recessive with the enzyme deficiency. The cyanosis from Hb M disease is resistant to treatment with reducing agents such as ascorbic acid or methylene blue, whereas with deficiency of the enzyme, the cyanosis is typically improved by ascorbic acid or methylene blue therapy.
* * *
The presence of methemoglobin in the circulating blood; when severe, there is inadequate oxygenation of the tissues. Methemoglobin causes the blood to have a brownish color, which may be mistaken for cyanosis. [methemoglobin + G. haima, blood]
- acquired m. m. caused by various chemical agents, such as nitrites or topical anesthetics. SYN: enterogenous m., secondary m..
- congenital m. 1. m. due to formation of any one of a group of abnormal α chain [MIM*141800] or β chain [MIM*141900] hemoglobins collectively known as hemoglobin M. Slate-gray cyanosis occurs in early infancy, without pulmonary or cardiac disease, and is resistant to ascorbic acid or methylene blue therapy; autosomal dominant inheritance; 2. m. due to deficiency of cytochrome b5 reductase [MIM*250790] or methemoglobin reductase [MIM*250700], the enzyme responsible for reduction of intraerythrocyte methemoglobin; cyanosis is improved by ascorbic acid or methylene blue; autosomal recessive inheritance; SYN: hereditary m., hereditary methemoglobinemic cyanosis, primary m..
- enterogenous m. SYN: acquired m..
- hereditary m. SYN: congenital m..
- primary m. SYN: congenital m..
- secondary m. SYN: acquired m..

* * *

met·he·mo·glo·bi·ne·mia or chiefly Brit met·hae·mo·glo·bi·nae·mia .met-.hē-mə-.glō-bə-'nē-mē-ə n the presence of methemoglobin in the blood due to conversion of part of the hemoglobin to this inactive form

* * *

met·he·mo·glo·bin·emia (met″he-mo-glo″bĭ-neґme-ə) [methemoglobin + -emia] the presence of excessive methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis and headache, dizziness, fatigue, ataxia, dyspnea, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness, which can progress to stupor, coma, and occasionally death.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Methemoglobinemia — Classification and external resources ICD 10 D74 ICD 9 289.7 …   Wikipedia

  • methemoglobinemia — methemoglobinemia. См. метгемоглобинемия. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • methemoglobinemia — ▪ pathology       decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of the red blood cells (erythrocytes (erythrocyte)) due to the presence of methemoglobin in the blood. The severity of the symptoms of methemoglobinemia is related to the quantity of… …   Universalium

  • methemoglobinemia — methemoglobinemija statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Kūdikių liga, atsirandanti dėl methemoglobino, galinčio susidaryti vartojant nitratų turintį vandenį, pertekliaus kraujyje. atitikmenys: angl. methaemoglobinaemia;… …   Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • methemoglobinemia — noun Etymology: New Latin Date: 1888 the presence of methemoglobin in the blood …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • methemoglobinemia — noun A form of toxic anemia characterized by the presence of methemoglobin in the blood …   Wiktionary

  • methemoglobinemia — met·hemoglobinemia …   English syllables

  • methemoglobinemia — |met+ noun ( s) Etymology: New Latin, from International Scientific Vocabulary methemoglobin + New Latin emia : the presence of methemoglobin in the blood due to conversion of part of the hemoglobin to this inactive form …   Useful english dictionary

  • acquired methemoglobinemia — methemoglobinemia caused by exposure to a toxic chemical or drug; many different agents have been implicated, including nitrate and nitrite compounds, sulfonamides, and aniline dyes. Called also toxic m …   Medical dictionary

  • congenital methemoglobinemia — hereditary methemoglobinemia any of several rare types caused by inherited conditions. Deficiency of cytochrome b5 reductase is an autosomal recessive condition that may be either confined to the erythrocytes and relatively symptom free or… …   Medical dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”