Mitochondrion
Singular of mitochondria. The mitochondria are normal structures called organelles in cells. They are located in the cell's cytoplasm outside the nucleus. The mitochondria are responsible for energy production. They consist of two sets of membranes, a smooth continuous outer coat and an inner membrane arranged in tubules or in folds that form plate- like double membranes (cristae). The mitochondria are in fact the principal energy source of the cell (thanks to the cytochrome enzymes of terminal electron transport and the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation). The mitochondria convert nutrients into energy as well as doing many other specialized tasks. Each mitochondrion has a chromosome that is made of DNA but is otherwise quite different from the better known chromosomes in the nucleus. The mitochondrial chromosome is much smaller. It is round (whereas the chromosomes in the nucleus are shaped like rods). And there are many copies of the mitochondrial chromosome in every cell (whereas there is normally only one set of chromosomes in the nucleus). No matter whether we are male or female, we inherit our mitochondrial chromosome from our mother. In other words, the mitochondrial chromosome is transmitted in a matrilinear manner. We have Eve to thank for our mitochondrial chromosome.
* * *
An organelle of the cell cytoplasm consisting of two sets of membranes, a smooth continuous outer coat and an inner membrane arranged in tubules or more often in folds that form platelike double membranes called cristae; mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell and contain the cytochrome enzymes of terminal electron transport and the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. SYN: Altmann granule (2). [G. mitos, thread, + chondros, granule, grits]
- m. of hemoflagellates the “mother m.,” from which smaller mitochondria appear to arise.

* * *

mi·to·chon·dri·on .mīt-ə-'kän-drē-ən n, pl -dria -drē-ə any of various round or long cellular organelles of most eukaryotes that are found outside the nucleus, produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration, and are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes called also chondriosome
mi·to·chon·dri·al -drē-əl adj
mi·to·chon·dri·al·ly adv

* * *

n. (pl. mitochondria)
a structure, occurring in varying numbers in the cytoplasm of every cell, that is the site of the cell's energy production. Mitochondria contain ATP and the enzymes involved in the cell's metabolic activities, and also their own DNA; mitochondrial genes (which in humans encode 13 proteins) are inherited through the female line. Each mitochondrion is bounded by a double membrane, the inner being folded inwards to form projections (cristae).
mitochondrial adj.

* * *

mi·to·chon·dri·on (mi″to-konґdre-on) singular of mitochondria.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • mitochondrion — mitochondrion. См. пластосома. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • mitochondrion — singular of MITOCHONDRIA (Cf. mitochondria) …   Etymology dictionary

  • mitochondrion — ► NOUN (pl. mitochondria) Biology ▪ a structure found in large numbers in most cells, in which respiration and energy production occur. DERIVATIVES mitochondrial adjective. ORIGIN from Greek mitos thread + khondrion small granule …   English terms dictionary

  • mitochondrion — [mīt΄ō kän′drē ən] n. pl. mitochondria [mīt΄ə kän′drēə] [ModL < Gr mitos, a thread + chondrion, a small cartilage < chondros: see CHONDRO ] any of various very small, usually rodlike structures found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and …   English World dictionary

  • Mitochondrion — For the metal band, see Mitochondrion (band). Two mitochondria from mammalian lung tissue displaying their matrix and membranes as shown by electron microscopy …   Wikipedia

  • Mitochondrion — Modell eines Mitochondriums (im Überseemuseum Bremen) Ein Mitochondrium (auch Mitochondrion, Plural Mitochondrien, aus griech. mitos, für Faden und chondros für Korn) ist ein von einer Doppelmembran umschlossenes Organell. Mitochondrien fungieren …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • mitochondrion — mitochondrial, adj. /muy teuh kon dree euhn/, n., pl. mitochondria / dree euh/. Cell Biol. an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production. See diag. under cell. [1900 05; < Gk míto(s) thread + chóndrion small grain,… …   Universalium

  • mitochondrion — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms mitochondrion : singular mitochondrion plural mitochondria UK [ˌmaɪtəʊˈkɒndrɪə] / US [ˌmaɪtəˈkɑndrɪə] biology a small part in a cell that helps your body to turn food into energy …   English dictionary

  • mitochondrion — chondriosome; n.; pl. mitochondria a structure, occurring in varying numbers in the cytoplasm of every cell, that is the site of the cell s energy production. Mitochondria contain ATP and the enzymes involved in the cell s metabolic activities,… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Mitochondrion — mitochondrija statusas T sritis histologija, ląstelių chemija, histologinė chemija, audinių kultūra atitikmenys: lot. Mitochondrion ryšiai: platesnis terminas – citoplazmos organelės ir intarpai siauresnis terminas – mitochondrijos chromosoma… …   Veterinarinės anatomijos, histologijos ir embriologijos terminai

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”