Monoclonal antibody
An antibody produced by a single clone of cells (specifically, a single clone of hybridoma cells) and therefore a single pure homogeneous type of antibody. Monoclonal antibodies can be made in large amounts in the laboratory and are a cornerstone of immunology. The term "monoclonal" pertains to a single clone of cells, a single cell and the progeny of that cell. History: In 1975 César Milstein and Georges Köhler, working at the University of Cambridge, devised a laboratory technique for making monoclonal antibodies. They wanted to have long-lived cell lines that would make antibodies of a single kind. Antibody-producing cells could be harvested from the spleen of mice that had been exposed to a known antigenic protein but these cells only grew transiently in the laboratory. They also had mouse myeloma cells, tumor cells that would grow indefinitely in the laboratory and produce immunoglobulin, the substance of antibody, but not make a pure antibody. Milstein and Köhler fused the mouse spleen cells with the mouse myeloma cells in the hope that one would bring to the union the antibody specificity they needed, while the other would make the "hybridoma" cells immortal. Their hope was realized. For their discovery, Milstein and Köhler shared the 1984 Nobel Prize in Medicine.

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an antibody produced artificially from a cell clone and therefore consisting of a single type of immunoglobulin. Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing antibody-forming lymphocytes from mouse spleen with mouse myeloma cells. The resulting hybrid cells multiply rapidly (like cancer cells) and produce the same antibody as their parent lymphocytes. Monoclonal antibodies can be used for treating some malignant tumours (e.g. brain tumours, breast cancer, lymphoma, and leukaemia), which can be targeted by these antibodies (known colloquially as 'magic bullets'). See also infliximab, rituximab, trastuzumab.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • monoclonal antibody — an antibody produced artificially from a cell clone and therefore consisting of a single type of immunoglobulin. Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing antibody forming lymphocytes from mouse spleen with mouse myeloma cells. The resulting… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • monoclonal antibody — noun any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by a single clone of cells or a cell line and consisting of identical antibody molecules • Syn: ↑monoclonal • Hypernyms: ↑antibody • Hyponyms: ↑infliximab, ↑Remicade …   Useful english dictionary

  • monoclonal antibody — A type of protein made in the laboratory that can locate and bind to substances in the body and on the surface of cancer cells. There are many kinds of monoclonal antibodies; each one is made to find a different substance. Monoclonal antibodies… …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • monoclonal antibody — noun an antibody produced by a single clone of cells or cell line and consisting of identical antibody molecules …   English new terms dictionary

  • monoclonal antibody — mon′oclo′nal an′tibody n. lab any antibody produced by a laboratory grown cell clone, either of a hybridoma or a virus transformed lymphocyte, in order to achieve greater abundance and uniformity than provided by a natural antibody Abbr. MAb •… …   From formal English to slang

  • monoclonal antibody — /ˌmɒnoʊkloʊnəl ˈæntibɒdi/ (say .monohklohnuhl anteebodee) noun an antibody produced by a cell cloned in a laboratory, which produces antibodies more abundantly and uniformly than a natural cell, the antibody being able to bind specifically to a… …   Australian English dictionary

  • monoclonal antibody — Abbreviation: mAb An antibody, produced by a hybridoma, directed against a single antigenic determinant of an antigen …   Glossary of Biotechnology

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