Antitoxin
An antibody capable of destroying microorganisms including viruses and bacteria. An antitoxin provides passive immunity. For example, if a child gets whooping cough (diphtheria), an antitoxin prepared in horses against diphtheria may be useful in treatment. The antitoxin can only be of short-term value because the antibodies against diphtheria were made by the horse and the child is just the passive recipient of the antibodies. The antitoxin is directed against a toxin, one of a number of poisons produced by certain plants, animals, and bacteria. The term "toxin" is frequently used to refer specifically to a particular protein produced by some higher plants, animals and pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria. A toxin typically has a high molecular weight (as compared to a simple chemical poison), is antigenic (elicits an antibody response), and is highly poisonous to living creatures. The word "toxin" comes from the Greek "toxikon" = arrow poison.
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Antibody formed in response to antigenic poisonous substances of biologic origin, such as bacterial exotoxins ( e.g., those elaborated by Clostridium tetani or Corynebacterium diphtheriae), phytotoxins, and zootoxins; in general usage, a. refers to whole, or globulin fraction of, serum from persons or animals (usually horses) immunized by injections of the specific toxoid. A. neutralizes the pharmacologic effects of its specific toxin in vitro, and also in vivo if the toxin is not already fixed to the tissue cells. [anti- + G. toxikon, poison]
- bivalent gas gangrene a. a. specific for the toxins of Clostridium perfringens and C. septicum.
- bothropic a. a. specific for the venom of pit vipers of the genus Bothrops (Bothrophora) of the family Crotalidae. SYN: Bothrops a..
- Bothrops a. SYN: bothropic a..
- botulinum a. SYN: botulism a..
- botulism a. a. specific for a toxin of one or another strain of Clostridium botulinum. SYN: botulinum a..
- bovine a. a. prepared from cattle instead of horses, used in the treatment of persons who are sensitive to horse serum; the cattle are immunized against the toxin for which specific a. is desired.
- Crotalus a. a. specific for venom of rattlesnakes (Crotalus species).
- despeciated a. an antitoxic serum treated in an appropriate manner to alter the species-specific protein, so that a person sensitized to the animal protein is not likely to have a serious reaction when the a. is administered.
- diphtheria a. a. specific for the toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
- dysentery a. a. specific for the neurotoxin of Shigella dysenteriae.
- gas gangrene a. a. specific for the toxin of one or more species of Clostridium that cause gas gangrene and associated toxemia, especially C. perfringens, C. novyi, C. histolyticum, and commercially available preparations are usually polyvalent, i.e., contain a. for two or more species. SYN: pentavalent gas gangrene a..
- normal a. serum that is capable of neutralizing an equivalent quantity of a normal toxin solution.
- pentavalent gas gangrene a. SYN: gas gangrene a..
- plant a. a. specific for a phytotoxin.
- scarlet fever a. a. specific for the erythrogenic toxin of certain strains of group A β-hemolytic streptococci.
- staphylococcus a. a serum containing antitoxic globulins or their derivatives that specifically neutralize the lethal, skin-necrosing, and hemolytic properties of the α-toxin of Staphylococcus aureus.
- tetanus a. a. specific for the toxin of Clostridium tetani.
- tetanus and gas gangrene antitoxins a mixture of antibodies obtained from animals immunized against the toxins of Clostridium tetani, C. perfringens, and C. septicum.
- tetanus-perfringens a. an a. prepared from animals immunized against the toxins of Clostridium tetani and C. perfringens (C. welchii).

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an·ti·tox·in .ant-i-'täk-sən n an antibody that is capable of neutralizing the specific toxin (as a specific causative agent of disease) that stimulated its production in the body and is produced in animals for medical purposes by injection of a toxin or toxoid with the resulting serum being used to counteract the toxin in other individuals also an antiserum containing antitoxins

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n.
an antibody produced by the body to counteract a toxin formed by invading bacteria or from any other source.

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an·ti·tox·in (an″tĭ-tokґsin) 1. antibody against a toxin. 2. a purified antiserum from animals (usually horses) immunized by injections of a toxin or toxoid, administered as a passive immunizing agent to neutralize a specific bacterial toxin, e.g., botulinus, tetanus, or diphtheria.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • antitoxin — [an΄titäks′in] n. 1. a circulating antibody formed by the body, as active immunity, to act against a specific toxin 2. a sterile solution containing an antitoxin: it is taken from the blood serum of an immunized animal or person and injected into …   English World dictionary

  • Antitoxin — An ti*tox in, Antitoxine An ti*tox ine, n. [Pref. anti + toxin.] A substance (sometimes the product of a specific micro organism and sometimes naturally present in the blood or tissues of an animal), capable of producing immunity from certain… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • antitoxin — antitoxin. См. антитоксин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • antitoxin — index cure Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • antitoxin — (n.) substance neutralizing poisons, 1892, from ANTI (Cf. anti ) + TOXIN (Cf. toxin). Coined in 1890 by German bacteriologist Emil von Behring (1854 1917). ANTITOXIC (Cf. Antitoxic) in this sense is from 1860 …   Etymology dictionary

  • antitoxin — [n] agent for negating the effect of an infection or poison antibiotic, antibody, antipoison, antiseptic, antiserum, antivenin, counteractant, counteragent, medicine, neutralizer, preventive, serum, vaccine; concept 307 …   New thesaurus

  • Antitoxin — An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants, and bacteria. Although they are most effective in neutralizing toxins, they can kill bacteria and other… …   Wikipedia

  • antitoxin — /an ti tok sin, an tee /, n. 1. a substance, formed in the body, that counteracts a specific toxin. 2. the antibody formed in immunization with a given toxin, used in treating certain infectious diseases or in immunizing against them. [1890 95;… …   Universalium

  • Antitoxin — Diphtherie Antitoxin historisch Ein Antitoxin ist ein Gegengift, das bereits im Körper vorhandene Gifte unschädlich macht. Meist wird es aus dem Serum von Genesenden oder von großen Labortieren, wie Pferd und Rind gewonnen. Chemisch gesehen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Antitoxin — Antidot (fachsprachlich); Gegengift; Gegenmittel; Antidoton (fachsprachlich) * * * An|ti|to|xin 〈n. 11; Med.〉 im Blutserum enthaltener Antikörper [<grch. anti „gegen“ + toxikon „Gift“] * * * An|ti|to|xin: [↑ …   Universal-Lexikon

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