Nucleic acid hybridization
A technique in which single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) are allowed to interact so that complexes called hybrids are formed by molecules with similar, complementary sequences. Through nucleic acid hybridization, the degree of sequence identity between nucleic acids can be determined and specific sequences detected in them. The hybridization can be carried out in solution or with one component immobilized on a gel or, most commonly, on nitrocellulose paper. Hybrids are detected by various means: visualization in the electron microscope; by radioactively labelling one component and removing non-complexed DNA; or by washing or digestion with an enzyme that attacks single-stranded nucleic acids and finally estimating the radioactivity bound. Hybridizations are done in all combinations: DNA-DNA (DNA can be rendered single-stranded by heat denaturation), DNA-RNA or RNA-RNA. In situ hybridization involves hybridizing a labelled nucleic acid (often labelled with a fluorescent dye) to suitably prepared cells or histological sections. This is used particularly to look for specific transcription or localization of genes to specific chromosomes via fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis.

* * *

formation of a partially or wholly complementary DNA-RNA, DNA-DNA, or RNA-RNA duplex by association of single-stranded nucleic acids, sometimes specifically from different sources; used as the basis of a wide variety of techniques for analysis of nucleic acids and detection and isolation of specific sequences.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nucleic acid hybridization — Hybridization is the process, discovered by Alexander Rich, of combining complementary, single stranded nucleic acids into a single molecule. Nucleotides will bind to their complement under normal conditions, so two perfectly complementary… …   Wikipedia

  • nucleic acid hybridization — (nu kle ik) The process of forming a hybrid double stranded DNA molecule using a heated mixture of single stranded DNAs from two different sources; if the sequences are fairly complementary, stable hybrids will form …   Dictionary of microbiology

  • Nucleic acid double helix — Double helix redirects here. For other uses, see Double helix (disambiguation). Two complementary regions of nucleic acid molecules will bind and form a double helical structure held together by base pairs. In molecular biology, the term double… …   Wikipedia

  • Nucleic acid secondary structure — The secondary structure of a nucleic acid molecule refers to the basepairing interactions within a single molecule or set of interacting molecules, and can be represented as a list of bases which are paired in a nucleic acid molecule.[1] The… …   Wikipedia

  • Hybridization, nucleic acid — A laboratory technique in which single stranded nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) are allowed to interact so that complexes called hybrids are formed by molecules with similar, complementary sequences. Through nucleic acid hybridization, the degree of… …   Medical dictionary

  • Nucleic acid thermodynamics — is the study of the thermodynamics of nucleic acid molecules, or how temperature affects nucleic acid structure. For multiple copies of DNA molecules, the melting temperature (Tm) is defined as the temperature at which half of the DNA strands are …   Wikipedia

  • Nucleic acid design — can be used to create nucleic acid complexes with complicated secondary structures such as this four arm junction. These four strands associate into this structure because it maximizes the number of correct base pairs, with A s matched to T s and …   Wikipedia

  • nucleic acid — /nooh klee ik, klay , nyooh /, Biochem. any of a group of long, linear macromolecules, either DNA or various types of RNA, that carry genetic information directing all cellular functions: composed of linked nucleotides. [1890 95; NUCLE(US) + IC;… …   Universalium

  • Nucleic acid analogues — Not to be confused with degenerate bases. For phosphoramidite synthesis of nucleic acids, see Oligonucleotide synthesis. RNA with its nucleobases to the left and DNA to the right. Nucleic acid analogues are compounds structurally similar (analog) …   Wikipedia

  • Nucleic acid structure prediction — This article is about the computational prediction of nucleic acid structure. For experimental methods, see Nucleic acid structure determination. Nucleic acid structure prediction is a computational method to determine nucleic acid secondary and… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”