Nucleotide
A subunit of DNA or RNA. To form a DNA or RNA molecule, thousands of nucleotides are joined in a long chain. Each nucleotide is divided into three parts (with apologies to Caesar): {{}}A nitrogenous base (A, G, T, or C in DNA; A, G, U, or C in RNA), A phosphate molecule, and A sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA). A DNA oligonucleotide is a short piece of DNA composed of relatively few (oligo-) nucleotide bases.
* * *
Originally a combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group; by extension, any compound containing a heterocyclic compound bound to a phosphorylated sugar by an N-glycosyl link ( e.g., adenosine monophosphate, NAD+). For individual nucleotides see specific names. SYN: mononucleotide.
- cyclic n. a nucleoside monophosphate in which the phosphoryl group is linked twice to the sugar moiety; e.g., adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP).
- flavin n. flavin.

* * *

nu·cle·o·tide 'n(y)ü-klē-ə-.tīd n any of several compounds that consist of a ribose or deoxyribose sugar joined to a purine or pyrimidine base and to a phosphate group and that are the basic structural units of RNA and DNA compare NUCLEOSIDE

* * *

n.
a compound consisting of a nitrogen-containing base (a purine or pyrimidine) linked to a sugar and a phosphate group. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are long chains of linked nucleotides (polynucleotide chains), which in DNA contain the purine bases adenine and guanine and the pyrimidines thymine and cytosine; in RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil.

* * *

nu·cleo·tide (nooґkle-o-tīd) a phosphate ester of a nucleoside, particularly the 5′-phosphate of a pyrimidine or purine in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acid.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nucleotide — Nucléotide Les nucléotides sont des acides désoxyribonucléiques pour l ADN et ribonucléiques pour l ARN. Un nucléotide est composé de 3 parties : un groupement phosphate (ou acide phosphorique), identique pour les nucléotides de l ADN et de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • nucléotide — [ nykleɔtid ] n. m. • 1963; de nucléo et ide ♦ Biochim. Constituant élémentaire des acides nucléiques formé par un nucléoside associé à un phosphate. ● nucléotide nom masculin Molécule biologique résultant de l union d un nucléoside avec l acide… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • nucleotide — ucleotide n. a phosphate ester of a nucleoside; one of the monomeric components of DNA or RNA. [WordNet 1.5 +PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • nucleotide — nucleotide. См. нуклеотид. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Nucleotide — Nucleotide, aus einer Pentose, einem Phosphorsäurerest und einer Purinbase (Adenin, Guanin) oder Pyrimidinbase (Cytosin, Thymin, Uracil) bestehende Stoffwechselregulatoren; sie dienen in Form von Adenosindiphosphat (ADP) und Adenosintriphosphat… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • nucleotide — (n.) 1908, from Ger. nucleotid (1908), from nucleo , modern comb. form of L. nucleus (see NUCLEUS (Cf. nucleus)) + IDE (Cf. ide), with t for the sake of euphony …   Etymology dictionary

  • nucleotide —  Nucleotide  Нуклеотид   Соединение, в состав которого входят сахар, фосфатная группа и азотсодержащее основание (пурин или пиримидин). Нуклеиновые кислоты (ДНК и РНК) представляют собой длинные полинуклеотидные цепи, которые в ДНК содержат… …   Толковый англо-русский словарь по нанотехнологии. - М.

  • nucleotide — [no͞o′klē ō tīd΄, nyo͞o′klē ō tīd΄] n. [altered < NUCLEOSIDE] 1. any of several phosphate esters of nucleosides: the basic unit of nucleic acids 2. any of several compounds not found in nucleic acids, which function as coenzymes …   English World dictionary

  • Nucleotide — Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. In addition, nucleotides participate in cellular signaling (cGMP and cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions… …   Wikipedia

  • Nucléotide — Structure des nucléotides Un nucléotide est une molécule organique composée d une nucléobase, d un pentose et de 1 à 3 groupements phosphates. Certains nucléotides forment la base de l ADN et de l ARN, d autres sont des cofacteurs ou coenzymes.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • nucleotide — /nooh klee euh tuyd , nyooh /, n. Biochem. any of a group of molecules that, when linked together, form the building blocks of DNA or RNA: composed of a phosphate group, the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, and a pentose sugar, in… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”