Respiration
Respiration is the act of inhaling and exhaling air in order to exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide.
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1. A fundamental process of life, characteristic of both plants and animals, in which oxygen is used to oxidize organic fuel molecules, providing a source of energy as well as carbon dioxide and water. In green plants, photosynthesis is not considered r. 2. SYN: ventilation (2). [L. respiratio, fr. respiro, pp. -atus, to exhale, breathe]
- abdominal r. breathing effected mainly by the action of the diaphragm.
- aerobic r. a form of r. in which molecular oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide and water are produced.
- amphoric r. a sound like that made by blowing across the mouth of a bottle, heard on auscultation in some cases in which a large pulmonary cavity exists, or occasionally in pneumothorax.
- anaerobic r. a form of r. in which molecular oxygen is not consumed; e.g., nitrate r., sulfate r..
- artificial r. SYN: artificial ventilation.
- assisted r. SYN: assisted ventilation.
- Biot r. completely irregular breathing pattern, with continually variable rate and depth of breathing; results from lesions in the respiratory centers in the brainstem, extending from the dorsomedial medulla caudally to the obex. SYN: ataxic breathing, Biot breathing, respiratory ataxia.
- bronchial r. a tubular blowing sound caused by the passage of air through a bronchus in an area of consolidated lung tissue.
- bronchovesicular r. combined bronchial and vesicular r..
- cavernous r. a hollow reverberating sound heard on auscultation over a cavity in the lung.
- Cheyne-Stokes r. the pattern of breathing with gradual increase in depth and sometimes in rate to a maximum, followed by a decrease resulting in apnea; the cycles ordinarily are 30 seconds to 2 minutes in duration, with 5–30 seconds of apnea; seen with bilateral deep cerebral hemispheric lesions, with metabolic encephalopathy, and, characteristically, in coma from affection of the nervous centers of r..
- cogwheel r. the inspiratory sound interrupted by one or two by silent intervals. SYN: interrupted r., jerky r..
- controlled r. SYN: controlled ventilation.
- costal r. SYN: thoracic r..
- diffusion r. maintenance of oxygenation during apnea by intratracheal insufflation of oxygen at high flow rates. SYN: apneic oxygenation.
- electrophrenic r. the rhythmic electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve by an electrode applied to the skin at the motor points of the phrenic nerve; it is used in paralysis of the respiratory center resulting from acute bulbar poliomyelitis.
- external r. the exchange of respiratory gases in the lungs as distinguished from internal or tissue r..
- internal r. SYN: tissue r..
- interrupted r. SYN: cogwheel r..
- jerky r. SYN: cogwheel r..
- Kussmaul r. deep, rapid r. characteristic of diabetic or other causes of acidosis. SYN: Kussmaul-Kien r..
- Kussmaul-Kien r. SYN: Kussmaul r..
- labored r. difficult, usually deep, breathing in patients with cardiac or pulmonary disease or disease affecting nervous system control of ventilation.
- mouth-to-mouth r. a method of artificial ventilation involving an overlap of the patient's mouth (and nose in small children) with the operator's mouth to inflate the patient's lungs by blowing, followed by an unassisted expiratory phase brought about by elastic recoil of the patient's chest and lungs; repeated 12–16 times a minute; where the nose is not covered by the operator's mouth, the nostrils must be closed by pinching.
- nitrate r. the process of r. used by some anaerobic organisms, in which nitrate rather than molecular oxygen is used to oxidize organic molecules to obtain energy.
- paradoxical r. deflation of the lung during inspiration and inflation of the lung during the phase of expiration; seen in the lung on the side of an open pneumothorax.
- puerile r. an exaggeration of the normal respiratory sounds, heard in children and in adults after exertion.
- stertorous r. harsh, noisy breathing usually heard in a comatous patient. SYN: stertorous breathing.
- sulfate r. the process of r. used by some anaerobic organisms, in which sulfate rather than molecular oxygen is used to oxidize organic molecules to obtain energy.
- thoracic r. r. effected chiefly by the action of the intercostal and other muscles that raise the ribs, causing expansion of the chest. SYN: costal r..
- tissue r. the interchange of gases between the blood and the tissues. SYN: internal r..
- tubular r. high-pitched bronchial r..
- vesicular r. the respiratory murmur heard on auscultating over the normal lung. SYN: respiratory murmur, vesicular murmur.
- vesiculocavernous r. cavernous r., due to the presence of a cavity, mingled with the vesicular murmur of the surrounding normal lung tissue.

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res·pi·ra·tion .res-pə-'rā-shən n
1 a) the movement of respiratory gases (as oxygen and carbon dioxide) into and out of the lungs
b) a single complete act of breathing <30 \respirations per minute>
2) the physical and chemical processes (as breathing and diffusion) by which an organism supplies its cells and tissues with the oxygen needed for metabolism and relieves them of the carbon dioxide formed in energy-producing reactions
3) cellular respiration

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n.
the process of gaseous exchange between an organism and its environment. This includes both external respiration, which involves breathing, in which oxygen is taken up by the capillaries of the lung alveolus and carbon dioxide is released from the blood, and internal respiration, during which oxygen is released to the tissues and carbon dioxide absorbed by the blood. Blood provides the transport medium for the gases between the lungs and tissue cells. In addition, it contains a pigment, haemoglobin, with special affinity for oxygen. Once inside the cell oxygen is utilized in metabolic processes resulting in the production of energy (see ATP), water, and waste materials (including carbon dioxide). See also lung.
respiratory adj.

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res·pi·ra·tion (res″pĭ-raґshən) [L. respiratio] 1. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the cells of the body. The process includes ventilation (inhalation and exhalation), the diffusion of oxygen from pulmonary alveoli to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli, and the transport of oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body cells. Symbol R. 2. ventilation (def. 2). 3. the metabolic processes by which cells generate energy, chiefly in the form of ATP, by the oxidation of organic molecules such as glucose, with the release of carbon dioxide, water, and other oxidized products; called also cell or cellular r.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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