Visceral leishmaniasis
A chronic and potentially fatal parasitic disease of the viscera (particularly the liver, spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes) due to infection by Leishmania donovani. Also known as Kala-azar. Leishmania donovani is transmitted by sandfly bites in parts of Asia (primarily India), Africa (primarily Sudan) and South America (primarily Brazil) where all together there are an estimated half million cases per year. There are also several hundred cases yearly in Europe (primarily in the Mediterranean region) and a few in North America. Visceral leishmaniasis can cause no or few symptoms but typically is associated with fever, loss of appetite (anorexia), fatigue, enlargement of the liver, spleen and nodes and suppression of the bone marrow. Visceral leishmaniasis also increases the risk of other secondary infections. The first oral drug found to be effective for treating visceral leishmaniasis is miltefosine. The name "Leischmania donovani" honors two men: the British pathologist William Boog Leishman who in 1903 wrote about the protozoa that causes kala-azar and the researcher C. Donovan, who made the same discovery independently the same year.

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visceral leishmaniasis n KALA-AZAR

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a chronic infectious disease, highly fatal if untreated, usually caused by Leishmania donovani, L. infantum, or L. chagasi, found in various tropical and subtropical regions of the world; parasites are found in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system throughout the body, especially in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and skin. It is commonly characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, irregular fever, chills, vomiting, emaciation, anemia, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and an earth-gray color of the skin. It has traditionally been divided into three different forms according to geographical distribution, vector, and other factors, but such a distinction may prove to be invalid. See American visceral l., infantile visceral l., and Indian visceral l. Called also kala-azar, tropical splenomegaly, and black, cachectic, cachexial, or Dumdum fever.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Visceral leishmaniasis — Classification and external resources Amastigotes in a chorionic villus ICD 10 B …   Wikipedia

  • visceral leishmaniasis — noun leishmaniasis of the viscera • Syn: ↑kala azar, ↑Assam fever, ↑dumdum fever • Hypernyms: ↑leishmaniasis, ↑leishmaniosis, ↑kala azar * * * noun …   Useful english dictionary

  • visceral leishmaniasis — Pathol. kala azar. * * * …   Universalium

  • visceral leishmaniasis — kala azar …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • American visceral leishmaniasis — a type of visceral leishmaniasis seen in South America, Central America, and Mexico, usually caused by Leishmania chagasi, and affecting persons of any age. Its major reservoirs are dogs and the usual vector is the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis …   Medical dictionary

  • Indian visceral leishmaniasis — a type of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani, usually affecting older children or young adults; humans are the only reservoir hosts and it is transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes. It occurs primarily in eastern… …   Medical dictionary

  • infantile visceral leishmaniasis — a type of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum, usually affecting children between ages 1 and 4; reservoirs are dogs, foxes, jackals, and rodents, and vectors are species of Phlebotomus sandflies. It occurs in the Mediterranean… …   Medical dictionary

  • Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis — infantile visceral l …   Medical dictionary

  • Кала-Азар, Лейшманиоз Висцеральный (Visceral Leishmaniasis), Лихорадка Дум-Дум (Dumdum Fever) — тропическое заболевание, вызываемое паразитирующими простейшими вида Lcishmania donovani. Эти паразиты попадают к человеку через песчаных москитов, проникая затем в клетки лимфатической системы, селезенки и костного мозга. Симптомы заболевания… …   Медицинские термины

  • Leishmaniasis — Classification and external resources Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the hand of a Central American adult …   Wikipedia

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