Capsule


Capsule
Capsule has many meanings in medicine including the following: {{}}In medicine, a membranous structure that envelops an organ, a joint, tumor, or any other part of the body. It is usually made up of dense collagen-containing connective tissue. In pharmacy, a solid dosage form in which the drug is enclosed in a hard or soft soluble container, usually of a form of gelatin. In microbiology, a coat around a microbe, such as a bacterium or fungus. Derived from the diminutive of the Latin word "capsa" meaning "box", a capsule is literally "a little box" and can refer to any encompassing structure or small container.
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1. A membranous structure, usually dense collagenous connective tissue, that envelops an organ, a joint, or any other part. 2. An anatomic structure resembling a c. or envelope. SYN: capsula (1) [TA]. 3. A fibrous tissue layer enveloping an organ or a tumor, especially if benign. 4. A solid dosage form in which a drug is enclosed in either a hard or soft soluble container or “shell” of a suitable form of gelatin. 5. A hyaline polysaccharide coating around a fungal or bacterial cell. Bacteria may also have a polypeptide c. or a slime layer around the cell. [L. capsula, dim. of capsa, box]
- adipose c. SYN: paranephric fat.
- adrenal c. SYN: suprarenal gland.
- articular c. joint c..
- atrabiliary c. SYN: suprarenal gland.
- auditory c. SYN: otic c..
- bacterial c. a layer of slime of variable composition which covers the surface of some bacteria; capsulated cells of pathogenic bacteria are usually more virulent than cells without capsules because the former are more resistant to phagocytic action.
- Bonnet c. the anterior part of the vagina bulbi.
- Bowman c. SYN: glomerular c..
- brood capsules small hollow projections from the lining membrane of a hydatid cyst from which the scoleces arise.
- cartilage c. the more intensely basophilic and metachromatic matrix in hyaline cartilage surrounding the lacunae of chrondrocytes resulting from relatively high concentrations of chondromuco protein. SYN: territorial matrix.
- c. of cricoarytenoid joint [TA] the c. enclosing the joint between the arytenoid and cricoid cartilages. SYN: capsula articularis cricoarytenoidea [TA], cricoarytenoid articular c..
- c. of cricothyroid joint [TA] the c. enclosing the cricothyroid joint. SYN: capsula articularis cricothyroidea [TA], cricothyroid articular c..
- Crosby c. an attachment to the end of a flexible tube, used for peroral biopsy of the small intestine, by which a piece of mucosa is sucked into an opening in the c. and cut off.
- crystalline c. SYN: c. of lens.
- external c. [TA] a thin lamina of white substance separating the claustrum from the putamen. It joins the internal c. at either extremity of the putamen, forming a c. of white matter external to the lenticular nucleus. SYN: capsula externa [TA], periclaustral lamina.
- extreme c. [TA] the layer of white matter separating the claustrum from the cortex of the insula, probably representing largely corticopetal and corticofugal fibers of the insular cortex. SYN: capsula extrema [TA].
- eye c. SYN: fascial sheath of eyeball.
- fatty renal c. SYN: paranephric fat.
- fibrous c. [TA] any fibrous envelope of a part; the fibrous c. of an organ. SYN: stratum fibrosum [TA], tunica fibrosa [TA], capsula fibrosa, stratum fibrosum capsulae articularis.
- fibrous articular c. SYN: fibrous layer of joint c..
- fibrous c. of kidney [TA] a fibrous membrane ensheathing the kidney. SYN: capsula fibrosa renis [TA], tunica fibrosa renis.
- fibrous c. of liver [TA] 1. a layer of connective tissue ensheathing the outer surface of the liver and also the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile ducts as these ramify within the liver; SYN: capsula fibrosa perivascularis, perivascular fibrous c.. 2. connective tissue c. surrounding the outer surface of the liver, but continuous with septae of some animals, e.g., pigs, which divide parenchyme into lobule, and with the perivascular fibrous c. at the porta hepatis. SYN: tunica fibrosa hepatis [TA], Glisson c..
- fibrous c. of parotid gland SYN: parotid fascia.
- fibrous c. of spleen [TA] the fibrous c. of the spleen, containing collagen, elastic fibers, and smooth muscle. SYN: capsula lienis [TA], tunica fibrosa splenis, tunica fibrosa lienis, tunica propria lienis.
- fibrous c. of thyroid gland [TA] the fibrous sheath of the thyroid gland. SYN: capsula fibrosa glandulae thyroideae [TA].
- Gerota c. SYN: renal fascia.
- Glisson c. SYN: fibrous c. of liver (2).
- glomerular c. [TA] the expanded beginning of a nephron composed of an inner and outer layer : the visceral layer consists of podocytes that surround a tuft of capillaries (glomerulus); the parietal layer is simple squamous epithelium that becomes cuboidal at the tubular pole. SYN: Bowman c., capsula glomeruli, malpighian c. (1), Müller c..
- internal c. [TA] a massive layer (8–10 mm thick) of white matter separating the caudate nucleus and thalamus (medial) from the more laterally situated lentiform nucleus (globus pallidus and putamen). It consists of 1) fibers ascending from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex that compose, among others, the visual, auditory, and somatic sensory radiations, and 2) fibers descending from the cerebral cortex to the thalamus, subthalamic region, midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord. The internal c. is the major route by which the cerebral cortex is connected with the brainstem and spinal cord. Laterally and superiorly it is continuous with the corona radiata which forms a major part of the cerebral hemisphere's white matter; caudally and medially it continues, much reduced in size, as the crus cerebri which contains, among others, corticospinal fibers. On horizontal section it appears in the form of a V opening out laterally; the V's obtuse angle is called genu (knee); its anterior and posterior limbs, respectively, the crus anterior and crus posterior. The internal c. consists of an anterior limb [TA], genu of internal c. [TA], posterior limb [TA], retrolentiform (or retrolenticular) limb [TA], and sublentiform (or sublenticular) limb [TA]. SYN: capsula interna [TA].
- joint c. [TA] a sac enclosing the articulating ends of the bones participating in a synovial joint, formed by an outer fibrous articular c. and an inner synovial membrane. SYN: capsula articularis [TA], articular c..
- lens c. SYN: c. of lens.
- c. of lens [TA] the c. enclosing the lens of the eye. SYN: capsula lentis [TA], crystalline c., lens c., lenticular c., phacocyst.
- lenticular c. SYN: c. of lens.
- malpighian c. 1. SYN: glomerular c.. 2. a thin fibrous membrane enveloping the spleen and continued over the vessels entering at the hilus.
- Müller c. SYN: glomerular c..
- nasal c. the cartilage around the developing nasal cavity of the embryo.
- optic c. the concentrated zone of mesenchyme around the developing optic cup; the primordium of the sclera of the eye.
- otic c. the cartilage c. surrounding the inner ear mechanism; in elasmobranchs, it remains cartilaginous in the adult; in the embryos of higher vertebrates, it is cartilaginous at first but later becomes bony (at approximately 23 weeks in humans). SYN: auditory c..
- perirenal fat c. SYN: paranephric fat.
- perivascular fibrous c. SYN: fibrous c. of liver (1).
- radiotelemetering c. an instrument that transmits measurements by radio impulses, from within the body; e.g., measurements of pressure from within the small bowel. SYN: radiopill.
- seminal c. SYN: seminal gland.
- suprarenal c. SYN: suprarenal gland.
- Tenon c. SYN: fascial sheath of eyeball.

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cap·sule 'kap-səl, -(.)sül n
1 a) a membrane or saclike structure enclosing a part or organ <the \capsule of the kidney>
b) either of two layers or laminae of white matter in the cerebrum: (1) a layer that consists largely of fibers passing to and from the cerebral cortex and that lies internal to the lentiform nucleus called also internal capsule (2) one that lies between the lentiform nucleus and the claustrum called also external capsule
2) a shell usu. of gelatin for packaging something (as a drug or vitamins) also a usu. medicinal or nutritional preparation for oral use consisting of the shell and its contents
3) a viscous or gelatinous often polysaccharide envelope surrounding certain microscopic organisms (as the pneumococcus)

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n.
1. a membrane, sheath, or other structure that encloses a tissue or organ. For example, the kidney, adrenal gland, and lens of the eye are enclosed within capsules. A joint capsule is the fibrous tissue, including the synovial membrane, that surrounds a freely movable joint.
2. a soluble case, usually made of gelatin, in which certain drugs are administered.
3. the slimy substance that forms a protective layer around certain bacteria, hindering their ingestion by phagocytes. It is usually made of polysaccharide.

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cap·sule (kapґsəl) [L. capsula a little box] 1. a structure in which something is enclosed, such as a hard or a soft, soluble container of a suitable substance, for enclosing a dose of medicine. 2. an anatomical structure enclosing an organ or body part; see capsula. capsular adj

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Synonyms:

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  • capsule — [ kapsyl ] n. f. • 1532 capsule du cœur; lat. capsula « petite boîte », de capsa → caisse 1 ♦ Anat. Formation anatomique qui a une disposition en enveloppe. Capsule articulaire. Capsule synoviale. Capsules surrénales. ♢ Capsule de Tenon :… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Capsule — Cap sule (k[a^]p s[=u]l), n. [L. capsula a little box or chest, fr. capsa chest, case, fr. capere to take, contain: cf. F. capsule.] 1. (Bot.) a dry fruit or pod which is made up of several parts or carpels, and opens to discharge the seeds, as,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Capsule — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Capsule Información personal Origen Japón …   Wikipedia Español

  • Capsule — (jap.カプセル, zu Deutsch „Kapsel“) ist eine japanische Elektropop Gruppe. Die Gruppe besteht aus der Sängerin Toshiko Koshijima und dem Produzenten und Musiker Yasutaka Nakata, der auch Produzent der Elektropop Gruppe Perfume ist. Die Gruppe wurde… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • capsule — (n.) 1650s, from Fr. capsule a membranous sac (16c.), from L. capsula small boat or chest, dim. of capsa box, case, chest (see CASE (Cf. case) (n.2)). Medical sense is 1875; shortened form cap is from 1942. Sense in space capsule is first… …   Etymology dictionary

  • capsule — [kap′səl, kap′syo͞ol] n. [Fr < L capsula, dim. of capsa, box: see CASE2] 1. Obs. a small case or sheath ☆ 2. a small, soluble gelatin container for enclosing a dose of medicine 3. ☆ a) an ejectable airplane cockpit b) …   English World dictionary

  • capsule — [adj] shortened form abridged, canned, condensed, epitomized, pocket, potted, tabloid; concepts 531,773 capsule [n] tablet, usually medicine bolus, cap, dose, lozenge, pellet, pill, troche; concepts 260,307 …   New thesaurus

  • capsule — ► NOUN 1) a small soluble case of gelatin containing a dose of medicine, swallowed whole. 2) a small case or container. 3) a space capsule. 4) Botany a dry fruit that releases its seeds by bursting open when ripe. DERIVATIVES capsular adjective… …   English terms dictionary

  • capsule — I noun abbreviation, abrege, abridgment, abstract, analysis, brief, capitulation, compend, compendium, compression, condensation, conspectus, contents, digest, epitome, essence, minute, note, outline, pandect, precis, recapitulation, reduction,… …   Law dictionary

  • capsule — CAPSULE. s. f. Terme de Botanique. Il se dit de cette partie de la plante qui renferme les semences et les graines. En Anatomie, on donne ce nom à des membranes qui enveloppent les articulations …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

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