carbon


carbon
A nonmetallic tetravalent element, atomic no. 6, atomic wt. 12.011; the major bioelement. It has two natural isotopes, 12C and 13C (the former, set at 12.00000, being the standard for all molecular weights), and two artificial, radioactive isotopes of interest, 11C and 14C. The element occurs in three pure forms (diamond, graphite, and in the fullerines), in amorphous form (in charcoal, coke, and soot), and in the atmosphere as CO2. Its compounds are found in all living tissues, and the study of its vast number of compounds constitutes most of organic chemistry. [L. carbo, coal]
- active c. dioxide, activated c. dioxide complex of N-carboxybiotin (biotin + CO2) and an enzyme; the form in which c. dioxide is added to other molecules in carboxylations; e.g., to methylcrotonyl-CoA to form β-methylglutaconyl in the catabolism of leucine, and to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. SEE ALSO: acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
- anomeric c. the reducing c. of a sugar; C-1 of an aldose, C-2 of a 2-ketose.
- c. bisulfide SYN: c. disulfide.
- c. dioxide CO2; the product of the combustion of c. with an excess of air; in concentrations not less than 99.0% by volume of CO2, used as a respiratory stimulant. SYN: carbonic acid gas, carbonic anhydride.
- c. dioxide snow solid c. dioxide used in the treatment of warts, lupus, nevi, and other skin affections, and as a refrigerant. SYN: dry ice.
- c. disulfide an extremely flammable (flashpoint −30°C), colorless, toxic liquid with a characteristic ethereal odor (fetid when impure); it is a parasiticide. SYN: c. bisulfide.
- c. monoxide (CO) a colorless, practically odorless, and poisonous gas formed by the incomplete combustion of c.; its toxic action is due to its strong affinity for hemoglobin, myoglobin, and the cytochromes, reducing oxygen transport and blocking oxygen utilization.
- c. tetrachloride a colorless, mobile liquid having a characteristic ethereal odor resembling that of chloroform; it is used as a cleansing fluid and as a fire extinguisher, and has been used as an anthelmintic, especially against hookworm. SYN: tetrachloromethane.

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car·bon 'kär-bən n, often attrib a nonmetallic element found native (as in diamonds and graphite) or as a constituent of coal, petroleum, asphalt, limestone, and organic compounds or obtained artificially (as in activated charcoal) symbol C see ELEMENT (table)

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car·bon (C) (kahrґbən) [L. carbo charcoal] a nonmetallic tetrad element, found nearly pure in the diamond, and approximately pure in charcoal, graphite, and anthracite; atomic number 6, atomic weight 12.011. The two naturally occurring, stable isotopes are 12C (98.89 per cent) and 13C (1.11 per cent).

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • Carbon — Car bon (k[aum]r b[o^]n), n. [F. carbone, fr. L. carbo coal; cf. Skr. [,c]r[=a] to cook.] (Chem.) 1. An elementary substance, not metallic in its nature, which is present in all organic compounds. Atomic weight 11.97. Symbol C. it is combustible …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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  • carbon — UK US /ˈkɑːbən/ noun ► [U] NATURAL RESOURCES a chemical element (= simple chemical substance), which exists in all plants and animals, and is an important part of coal and oil. When carbon is burned it produces carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide …   Financial and business terms

  • carbón — (Del lat. carbo, ōnis). 1. m. Materia sólida, ligera, negra y muy combustible, que resulta de la destilación o de la combustión incompleta de la leña o de otros cuerpos orgánicos. 2. carbón de piedra. 3. Brasa o ascua después de apagada. 4.… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • carbon — [kär′bən] n. [Fr carbone < L carbo (gen. carbonis), coal < IE base * ker , to burn > HEARTH] 1. a nonmetallic chemical element found in many inorganic compounds and all organic compounds: diamond and graphite are pure carbon; carbon is… …   English World dictionary

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  • carbon — non metallic element, 1789, coined 1787 in French by Lavoisier as charbone, from L. carbo (gen. carbonis) glowing coal, charcoal, from PIE root *ker heat, fire, to burn (Cf. L. cremare to burn; Skt. krsna black, burnt, kudayati singes; Lith.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • carbón — sustantivo masculino 1. Combustible sólido y negro que se obtiene por destilación o combustión incompleta de diferentes fuentes como huesos o leña y arde con facilidad. carbón animal. carbón vegetal o carbón de leña. 2. Combustible mineral fósil… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española


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