d-glucose


d-glucose
Dextrose; a dextrorotatory monosaccharide (hexose) found in the free state in fruits and other parts of plants, and combined in glucosides, disaccharides (often with fructose in sugars), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides; it is the product of complete hydrolysis of cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Free glucose also occurs in the blood, where it is a principal energy source for use by body tissues (normal human concentration, 70–110 mg per 100 mL); in diabetes mellitus, it appears in the urine. The epimers of d-glucose are d-allose, d-mannose, d-galactose, and l-idose. Dextrose should not be confused with the l-isomer, which is sinistrose. SYN: cellohexose.
- activated glucose a nucleoside diphosphoglucose such as UDPglucose.
- glucose dehydrogenase converts β-d-glucose to d-glucono-δ-lactone, transferring hydrogen to NAD+ or NADP+. Cf.:glucose oxidase.
- liquid glucose a pharmaceutic aid consisting of dextrose, dextrins, maltose, and water, obtained by the incomplete hydrolysis of starch.
- glucose oxidase an antibacterial flavoprotein enzyme, obtained from Penicillum notatum and other fungi, which is antibacterial only in the presence of glucose and oxygen, its effect being due to the oxidation of d-glucose to d-glucono-δ-lactone, with the coconversion of O2 to H2O2; used in the preservation of food and in assays for glucose levels. SYN: glucose oxyhydrase, microcide.
- glucose oxyhydrase SYN: glucose oxidase.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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