glomerulonephritis


glomerulonephritis
Renal disease characterized by diffuse inflammatory changes in glomeruli that are not the acute response to infection of the kidneys. SYN: glomerular nephritis. [glomerulus + G. nephros, kidney, + -itis, inflammation]
- acute g. g. that frequently occurs as a late complication of pharyngitisor or skin infection, due to a nephritogenic strain of β-hemolytic streptococci, characterized by abrupt onset of hematuria, edema of the face, oliguria, and variable azotemia and hypertension; the renal glomeruli usually show cellular proliferation or infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. SYN: acute hemorrhagic g., acute nephritis, acute poststreptococcal g..
- acute crescentic g. SYN: rapidly progressive g..
- acute hemorrhagic g. SYN: acute g..
- acute poststreptococcal g. SYN: acute g..
- anti–basement membrane g. g. resulting from anti-basement membrane antibodies, characterized by smooth linear deposits of IgG and C3 along glomerular capillary walls; includes rapidly progressive g. and g. in Goodpasture syndrome.
- Berger focal g. SYN: focal g..
- chronic g. g. that presents with persisting proteinuria, chronic renal failure, and hypertension, of insidious onset or as a late sequel of acute g.; the kidneys are symmetrically contracted and granular, with scarring and loss of glomeruli and the presence of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. SYN: chronic nephritis.
- diffuse g. g. affecting most of the renal glomeruli; it may lead to azotemia.
- exudative g. g. with infiltration of glomeruli by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, occurring in acute g..
- focal g. g. affecting a small proportion of renal glomeruli which commonly presents with hematuria and may be associated with acute upper respiratory infection in young males, not usually due to streptococci; associated with IgA deposits in the glomerular mesangium and may also be associated with systemic disease, as in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. SYN: Berger disease, Berger focal g., focal nephritis, IgA nephropathy.
- focal embolic g. g. associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis, frequently producing microscopic hematuria without azotemia.
- hypocomplementemic g. SYN: membranoproliferative g..
- immune complex g. immune complexes are deposited in the renal glomerulus where they bind complement and initiate an inflammatory process attracting neutrophils and macrophages resulting in an alteration of the basement layer of the kidney. The disease state can lead to ultimate destruction of the glomerulus and renal failure.
- lobular g. SYN: membranoproliferative g..
- local g. SYN: segmental g..
- membranoproliferative g. chronic g. characterized by mesangial cell proliferation, increased lobular separation of glomeruli, thickening of glomerular capillary walls and increased mesangial matrix, and low serum levels of complement; occurs mainly in older children, with a variably slow progressive course, episodes of hematuria or edema, and hypertension. It is classified into three types: type 1, the commonest, in which there are subendothelial electron-dense deposits; type 2, dense-deposit disease, in which the lamina densa is greatly thickened by extremely electron-dense material; type 3, in which there are both subendothelial and subepithelial deposits. SYN: hypocomplementemic g., lobular g., mesangiocapillary g..
- membranous g. g. characterized by diffuse thickening of glomerular capillary basement membranes, due in part to subepithelial deposits of immunoglobulins separated by spikes of basement membrane material, and clinically by an insidious onset of the nephrotic syndrome and failure of disappearance of proteinuria; the disease is most commonly idiopathic but may be secondary to malignant tumors, drugs, infections, or systemic lupus erythematosus.
- mesangial proliferative g. g. characterized clinically by the nephrotic syndrome and histologically by diffuse glomerular increases in endocapillary and mesangial cells and in mesangial matrix; in some cases, there are mesangial deposits of IgM and complement. SYN: diffuse mesangial proliferation, IgM nephropathy.
- mesangiocapillary g. SYN: membranoproliferative g..
- proliferative g. g. with hypercellularity of glomeruli due to proliferation of endothelial or mesangial cells, occurring in acute g. and membranoproliferative g..
- rapidly progressive g. g. usually presenting insidiously, without preceding streptococcal infection, with increasing renal failure leading to uremia within a few months; at autopsy the kidneys are normal in size, numerous glomerular capsular epithelial crescents are present, and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies are frequently found. SYN: acute crescentic g..
- segmental g. g. affecting only part of a glomerulus or glomeruli. SYN: local g..
- subacute g. undesirable term for g. with proteinuria, hematuria and azotemia persisting for many weeks; renal changes are variable, including those of rapidly progressive and membranoproliferative g.. SYN: subacute nephritis.

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glo·mer·u·lo·ne·phri·tis -.mer-(y)ə-lō-ni-'frīt-əs n, pl -phrit·i·des -'frit-ə-.dēz nephritis marked by inflammation of the capillaries of the renal glomeruli

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n.
any of a group of kidney diseases involving the glomeruli (see glomerulus), usually thought to be the result of antibody-antigen reactions that localize in the kidneys because of their filtering function. Acute nephritis is marked by blood in the urine and fluid and urea retention. It may be related to a recent streptococcal throat infection and usually settles completely, with rapid return of normal kidney function. Other forms of nephritis present with chronic haematuria or with the nephrotic syndrome; children often eventually recover completely, but adults are more likely to progress to chronic nephritis and eventual kidney failure.

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glo·mer·u·lo·ne·phri·tis (glo-mer″u-lo-nə-friґtis) [glomerulo- + nephritis] nephritis accompanied by inflammation of the capillary loops in the renal glomeruli. It occurs in acute, subacute, and chronic forms and may be secondary to hemolytic streptococcal infection. Evidence also supports possible immune or autoimmune mechanisms. Called also glomerular nephritis.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Glomerulonephritis — Glomerulonephritis,   Form der Nierenentzündung …   Universal-Lexikon

  • glomerulonephritis — [glō mer΄yo͞o lō΄ne frīt′is] n. [ModL: see GLOMERULUS & NEPHRITIS] a type of nephritis characterized by inflamed glomeruli and probably caused by certain antibody antigen complexes in the blood filtering through the kidney …   English World dictionary

  • Glomerulonephritis — Unter einer Glomerulonephritis (griech. Nephros, Niere; itis, Entzündung; Plural: Glomerulonephritiden) wird in der Medizin die Entzündung der Nierenkörperchen (Glomerulum, Mehrzahl Glomeruli oder Glomerula, Corpuscula renales) in der Niere… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Glomerulonephritis — Infobox Disease Name = PAGENAME Caption = DiseasesDB = 5245 ICD10 = N00, N01, N03, N18 ICD9 = ICD9|580 ICD9|582 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = eMedicineTopic = MeshID = D005921 Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis,… …   Wikipedia

  • glomerulonephritis — noun (plural glomerulonephritides) Date: circa 1886 nephritis marked by inflammation of the capillaries of the renal glomeruli …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • glomerulonephritis — (glo mer u lo nē fri tis) An inflammatory disease of the renal glomeruli …   Dictionary of microbiology

  • glomerulonephritis — Inflammatory response in the kidney glomerulus that often arises because immune complexes cannot pass through the basement membrane of the fenestrated epithelium where plasma filtration occurs. Circulating neutrophils are trapped on the… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • glomerulonephritis — /gloh mer yeuh loh neuh fruy tis, gleuh /, n. Pathol. a kidney disease affecting the capillaries of the glomeruli, characterized by albuminuria, edema, and hypertension. [1885 90; GLOMERUL(US) + O + NEPHRITIS] * * * …   Universalium

  • glomerulonephritis — noun A form of nephritis characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli …   Wiktionary

  • Glomerulonephritis — Glomerulo|ne|phri̱tis [zu ↑Glomerulus u. gr. νεϕρος = Niere], dafür häufig die Kurzbezeichnung: Ne|phri̱tis w; , ...iti̱den (in fachspr. Fügungen: ...i̱tides): Nierenentzündung, die vorwiegend die ↑Glomeruli ergreift …   Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke