Dystonia


Dystonia
Involuntary movements and prolonged muscle contraction, resulting in twisting body motions, tremor, and abnormal posture. These movements may involve the entire body, or only an isolated area. Symptoms may even be "task specific," such as writer’s cramp. Dystonia can be inherited, occur sporadically without any genetic pattern, or be associated with medications or diseases (for example, a specific form of lung cancer). The gene responsible for at least one form of dystonia has recently been identified. Some types of dystonia respond to dopamine, or
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A state of abnormal (either hypo- or hyper-) tonicity in any of the tissues resulting in impairment of voluntary movement. [dys- + G. tonos, tension]
- d. lenticularis d. resulting from a lesion of the lenticulate nucleus.
- d. musculorum deformans a genetic, environmental, or idiopathic disorder, usually beginning in childhood or adolescence, marked by muscular contractions that distort the spine, limbs, hips, and sometimes the cranial-innervated muscles. The abnormal movements are increased by excitement and, at least initially, abolished by sleep. The musculature is hypertonic when in action, hypotonic when at rest. Hereditary forms usually begin with involuntary posturing of the foot or hand (autosomal recessive form [MIM*224500]) or of the neck or trunk (autosomal dominant form [MIM*128100]); both forms may progress to produce contortions of the entire body. SYN: torsion disease of childhood, torsion d., Ziehen-Oppenheim disease.
- torsion d. SYN: d. musculorum deformans.

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dys·to·nia dis-'tō-nē-ə n a state of disordered tonicity of tissues (as of muscle)
dys·ton·ic -'tän-ik adj

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n.
muscle dysfunction characterized by spasms or abnormal muscle contraction. One form is a postural disorder often associated with disease of the basal ganglia in the brain. There may be spasm in the muscles of the face, shoulders, neck, trunk, and limbs; the arm is often held in a rotated position and the head may be drawn back and to one side. Other forms of dystonia include torticollis, blepharospasm, and writer's cramp. Dystonic conditions, including blepharospasm, may be helped by the injection of botulinum toxin.
dystonic adj.

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dys·to·nia (dis-toґne-ə) [dys- + ton- + -ia] dyskinetic movements due to disordered tonicity of muscle; cf. dyskinesia. dystonic adj

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • dystonia — [dis tō′ne ə] n. a lack of normal muscle tone due to disease or infection of the nervous system dystonic [distän′ik] adj …   English World dictionary

  • Dystonia — Dystonias Classification and external resources A person with medication induced dystonia. ICD 10 G24.9 …   Wikipedia

  • dystonia — dystonic /dis ton ik/, adj. /dis toh nee euh/, n. Pathol. abnormal tone of any tissue. [DYS + TONIA] * * * ▪ pathology       movement disorder characterized by the involuntary and repetitive contraction of muscle groups, resulting in twisting… …   Universalium

  • dystonia — n. muscle dysfunction characterized by spasms or abnormal muscle contraction. One form is a postural disorder often associated with disease of the basal ganglia in the brain. There may be spasm in the muscles of the face (see hemifacial spasm),… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • dystonia — noun Etymology: New Latin Date: 1860 any of various conditions (as Parkinson s disease and torticollis) characterized by abnormalities of movement and muscle tone • dystonic adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • dystonia — noun A disabling neurological disorder in which prolonged and repetitive contractions of muscles cause jerking, twisting movements and abnormal postures of the body …   Wiktionary

  • dystonia — n. impairment of muscle tone …   English contemporary dictionary

  • dystonia — [dɪs təʊnɪə] noun Medicine a state of abnormal muscle tone resulting in muscular spasm and abnormal posture. Derivatives dystonic adjective …   English new terms dictionary

  • dystonia — dys·to·nia …   English syllables

  • dystonia — dys•to•ni•a [[t]dɪsˈtoʊ ni ə[/t]] n. pat a neurological disorder marked by strong involuntary muscle spasms that cause painful and disabling twisting of the body • Etymology: 1955–60 dys•ton•ic ˈtɒn ɪk adj …   From formal English to slang


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