polyneuropathy


polyneuropathy
1. A disease process involving a number of peripheral nerves (literal sense). 2. A nontraumatic generalized disorder of peripheral nerves, affecting the distal fibers most severely, with proximal shading ( e.g., the feet are affected sooner or more severely than the hands), and typically symmetrically; most often affects motor and sensory fibers almost equally, but can involve either one solely or very disproportionately; classified as axon degenerating (axonal), or demyelinating; many causes, particularly metabolic and toxic; familial or sporadic in nature. SYN: polyneuritis. SYN: multiple neuritis, symmetric distal neuropathy. [poly- + G. neuron, nerve, + pathos, disease]
- acute inflammatory p. SYN: Guillain-Barré syndrome.
- alcoholic p. a nutritional axon loss p. associated with chronic alcoholism.
- arsenical p. an axon loss p. that results from subacute or chronic arsenic poisoning; almost always preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms; one of the heavy metal neuropathies.
- axonal p. SYN: axon loss p..
- axon loss p. a type of p. in which axon degeneration is the sole/predominant feature; many etiologies, particularly toxic and metabolic; on nerve conduction studies, affects amplitudes of the responses, but does not cause conduction slowing or block. SYN: axonal p..
- buckthorn p. ascending p. resulting from ingestion of the fruit of Karwinskia humboldtiana.
- chronic inflammatory demyelinating p. (CIDP) an uncommon, acquired, demyelinating sensorimotor p., clinically characterized by insidious onset, slow evolution, (either steady progression or stepwise), and chronic course; symmetric weakness is a predominant symptom, often involving proximal leg muscles, accompanied by paresthesias, but not pain; CSF examination shows elevated protein, while electrodiagnostic studies reveal evidence of a demyelinating process, primarily conduction slowing rather than block; sometimes responds to prednisone.
- critical illness p. a diffuse axon loss sensorimotor p. seen in severely ill patients, usually in the intensive care unit; most patients have been on multiple drugs and cannot be weaned from ventilatory support; electrodiagnostic studies show evidence of an axon loss p., predominantly motor; of unknown etiology.
- demyelinating p. a type of p. in which almost solely the peripheral nerve myelin is affected; can be familial ( e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1) or acquired ( e.g., Guillain-Barré syndrome); on motor nerve conduction studies, manifested as conduction slowing or block. SYN: segmental demyelinating p..
- diabetic p. a distal, symmetric, generally sensorimotor p. that is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus.
- isoniazid p. an axonal loss p. seen in some patients treated with isoniazid.
- nitrofurantoin p. an axon loss p., often severe, seen in some patients treated with nitrofurantoin, particularly patients with chronic renal failure.
- nutritional p. an axon loss p. noted in beriberi, chronic alcoholism, and other clinical states, resulting from thiamin deficiency.
- progressive hypertrophic p. SYN: Dejerine-Sottas disease.
- segmental demyelinating p. SYN: demyelinating p..
- uremic p. a distal sensory and motor p. without conspicuous inflammation and ascribed to the metabolic effects of chronic renal failure.

* * *

poly·neu·rop·a·thy -n(y)u̇-'räp-ə-thē n, pl -thies a disease of nerves esp a noninflammatory degenerative disease of nerves usu. caused by toxins (as of lead)

* * *

n.

* * *

poly·neu·rop·a·thy (pol″e-n-ropґə-the) [poly- + neuropathy] neuropathy of several peripheral nerves simultaneously; called also multiple or peripheral neuropathy. Some conditions that are actually polyneuropathies are called neuropathies; see under neuropathy.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Polyneuropathy — Classification and external resources ICD 10 G60 G64 ICD 9 …   Wikipedia

  • polyneuropathy — noun Any of several diseases involving several peripheral nerves …   Wiktionary

  • polyneuropathy — poly·neuropathy …   English syllables

  • polyneuropathy — n.; see peripheral neuropathy …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • polyneuropathy — “+ noun Etymology: poly + neuropathy : a disease of nerves; especially : a noninflammatory degenerative disease of nerves usually caused by toxins (as of lead, alcohol) …   Useful english dictionary

  • Polyneuropathy in dogs and cats — is a collection of peripheral nerve disorders that often are breed related in these animals. Polyneuropathy indicates that multiple nerves are involved, unlike mononeuropathy. Polyneuropathy usually involves motor nerve dysfunction, also known as …   Wikipedia

  • amyloid polyneuropathy — polyneuropathy associated with amyloidosis, of either the primary (AL) or familial type; symptoms may include dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, carpal tunnel syndrome, and sensory disturbances in the extremities such as numbness,… …   Medical dictionary

  • anemic polyneuropathy — polyneuropathy seen in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (see under degeneration) …   Medical dictionary

  • nutritional polyneuropathy — polyneuropathy due to nutritional deficits, as seen with beriberi, pellagra, alcoholism, malabsorption syndromes, Strachan syndrome, and other conditions. Cf. anemic p …   Medical dictionary

  • uremic polyneuropathy — polyneuropathy caused by the uremia of chronic renal failure, characterized by painless bilateral sensorimotor deficits of the lower limbs and later the upper limbs …   Medical dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.