prion


prion
Small, infectious proteinaceous particle, of nonnucleic acid composition because of its resistance to nucleases; the causative agent, either on a sporadic, genetic, or infectious basis, of six neurodegenerative diseases in animals, and four in humans; the latter include the spongiform encephalopathies of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. The gene encoding for the PrP is found on chromosome 20. SYN: p. protein. [proteinaceous infectious particle] Stanley B. Prusiner received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1997 for his discovery of prions. Prusiner began his research in 1972 to identify the infectious agent of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In 1982 he and his colleagues isolated a protein that was capable of transmitting infection but, unlike all other known pathogens, contained neither DNA nor RNA. Prusiner's term for this protein, p., was derived from the phrase proteinaceous infectious particle. A gene encoding this protein has been found in all animals tested, including humans. The p. protein can occur in either of 2 structural conformations, one that is normal (but of unknown function), designated PrPc, and one that results in disease, called PrPSc. The normal p. protein is a component of lymphocytes and other cells and is particularly abundant on the cell membranes of CNS neurons. The PrPSc p. protein is extremely stable and is resistant to proteolysis, organic solvents, and high temperatures. Once produced or acquired by a suitable host, it can initiate a chain reaction whereby normal PrPc protein is converted into the more stable PrPSc form. After a long, asymptomatic incubation period, the disease-causing PrPSc accumulates to reach neurotoxic levels. Symptoms of p. diseases vary with the parts of the brain affected. All known p. diseases lead to the death of those affected. P. diseases are called spongiform encephalopathies because of the histologic appearance of affected cerebral cortex and cerebellum, which display large vacuoles. Probably most mammalian species develop these diseases. Prions are not living, are smaller than viruses, and do not elicit an immune response in either their normal or disease-causing form. P. diseases besides Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease include kuru (once prevalent among the Fore people of New Guinea, who practiced ritual cannibalism), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease), and scrapie, a disease of sheep. A new variant of CJD may have arisen through transmission of prions to human beings from cattle infected with BSE. P. diseases are unique in being both infectious and hereditary. Hereditary forms are due to transmitted mutations in the p. gene, located on chromosome 20 in human beings. Gertsmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease is a hereditary dementia resulting from a mutation in this gene. Approximately 50 families with GSS mutations have been identified. About 10–15% of cases of CJD are caused by inherited mutations in the p. protein gene. Strains of mice from which this gene has been abolished are immune to p.-caused disease. See Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

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pri·on 'prē-.än n a protein particle that lacks nucleic acid and has been implicated as the cause of various neurodegenerative diseases (as scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy)

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n.
an abnormal form of a constituent protein (PrP) of brain cells. Prions are produced by mutations in the gene that codes for PrP and are very stable: they are not removed by the normal cellular processes of degradation and are resistant to radiation. They are believed to interact with normal PrP in such a way as to convert it to the abnormal form, which accumulates in the brain. Prions are now widely accepted as being the causal agents of a range of serious diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, and kuru, all of which are spongiform encephalopathy. Different mutations in the PrP gene are believed to be responsible for the different forms of these so-called prion diseases.

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pri·on (priґon) (preґon) [protein infectious agent] any of several protease-resistant, insoluble, transmissible isoforms of the 27–30 kD core of prion protein that cause a group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases (prion diseases). Prions have a pleated sheet conformation rather than the α helix structure that is normal for prion protein, lack detectable nucleic acid, and do not elicit an immune response.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • PRION — PRI Agent infectieux ne contenant aucune information génétique, le prion est une molécule de protéine aberrante, dérivée d’une molécule existant normalement dans le métabolisme. Le prion a la propriété de communiquer sa conformation aux molécules …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Prión — m. Biol. Sustancia de naturaleza proteínica que transmite algunas enfermedades degenerativas del sistema nervioso. * * * prion o prión. (Del acrón. del ingl. proteinaceous infectious particle y ón2). m. Agente infeccioso, constituido… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • prión — m. genét. Partícula infecciosa de naturaleza exclusivamente proteica relacionada con el origen de enfermedades degenerativas del sistema nervioso central. Los priones pueden encontrarse en el organismo sin causar daños, principalmente en el… …   Diccionario médico

  • prion — 1848, from Gk. prion ”a saw.” …   Etymology dictionary

  • príon — s. m. [Biologia] Partícula infetante, constituída por proteínas, que provoca encefalopatias como a doença das vacas loucas ou a doença de Creuzfeldt Jakob. • [Brasil] Plural: príones ou príons.   ‣ Etimologia: inglês prion   ♦ Grafia em Portugal …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • prion — o prión (Del acrón. del ingl. proteinaceous infectious particle y ón2). m. Agente infeccioso, constituido exclusivamente por proteínas, que produce alteraciones neurodegenerativas contagiosas en diversas especies animales …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • prión — prion o prión (Del acrón. del ingl. proteinaceous infectious particle y ón2). m. Agente infeccioso, constituido exclusivamente por proteínas, que produce alteraciones neurodegenerativas contagiosas en diversas especies animales …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Prion — Pri on (pr[=e] [o^]n), n. any of several types of protein particle lacking nucleic acid, believed to be the cause of certain slow developing infectious diseases such as scapie in sheep, and Creutzfeldt Jakob disease and Kuru in humans. [informal] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Prion — (a. Geogr.), 1) Berg auf der Insel Kos; 2) Fluß an der Südküste des Glücklichen Arabien, mündete beim Vorgebirg Prionŏtos (j. Ras Brun od. Ras Fartak) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Prion — Prion, infektiöses Partikel, das wesentlich kleiner ist als die kleinsten Viren und nur aus einem Proteinkomplex ohne Nucleinsäure als genetischem Material besteht. P. vermehren sich, indem sie in der Wirtszelle (Neuronen) normale verwandte… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie


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