psychology


psychology
The profession ( e.g., clinical p.), scholarly discipline (academic p.), and science (research p.) concerned with the behavior of humans and animals, and related mental and physiologic processes. [psycho- + G. logos, study]
- adlerian p. SYN: individual p..
- analytical p. SYN: jungian psychoanalysis.
- animal p. a branch of p. concerned with the study of the behavior and physiologic responses of animal organisms as a means of understanding human behavior; some synonyms include comparative p., experimental p., and physiologic p..
- atomistic p. any psychologic system based on the doctrine that mental processes are built up through the combination of simple elements; e.g., psychoanalysis, behaviorism.
- behavioristic p. a branch of p. that uses behavioral approaches such as desensitization and flooding in contrast to counseling and other psychodynamic approaches to the treatment of psychologic disorders. SEE ALSO: behavior therapy.
- child p. a branch of p. the theories and applications of which focus on the cognitive and intellectual development of the child in contrast to the adult; subspecialties include developmental p., child clinical p., pediatric p., and pediatric neuropsychology.
- clinical p. a branch of p. that specializes in both discovering new knowledge and in applying the art and science of p. to persons with emotional or behavioral disorders; subspecialties include clinical child p. and pediatric p..
- cognitive p. a branch of p. that attempts to integrate into a whole the disparate knowledge from the subfields of perception, learning, memory, intelligence, and thinking.
- community p. the application of p. to community programs, e.g., in the schools, correctional and welfare systems, and community mental health center s.
- comparative p. a branch of p. concerned with the study and comparison of the behavior of organisms at different levels of phylogenic development to discover developmental trends.
- constitutional p. the p. of the individual as related to body habitus.
- counseling p. p. with emphasis on facilitating the normal development and growth of the individual in coping with important problems of everyday living, as initally contrasted with clinical p..
- criminal p. the study of the mind and its workings in relation to crime. See forensic p..
- depth p. the p. of the unconscious, especially in contrast with older (19th century) academic p. dealing only with conscious mentation; sometimes used synonymously with psychoanalysis.
- developmental p. the study of the psychologic, physiologic, and behavioral changes in an organism that occur from birth to old age.
- dynamic p. a psychologic approach that concerns itself with the causes of behavior.
- educational p. the application of p. to education, especially to problems of teaching and learning.
- environmental p. the study and application by behavioral scientists and architects of how changes in physical space and related physical stimuli impact upon the behavior of individuals. SEE ALSO: personal space.
- existential p. a theory of p., based on the philosophies of phenomenology and existentialism, which holds that the proper study of p. is a person's experience of the sequence, spatiality, and organization of his or her existence in the world.
- experimental p. 1. a subdiscipline within the science of p. that is concerned with the study of conditioning, learning, perception, motivation, emotion, language, and thinking; 2. also used in relation to subject-matter areas in which experimental, in contrast to correlational or socioexperiential, methods are emphasized.
- forensic p. the application of p. to legal matters in a court of law.
- genetic p. a science dealing with the evolution of behavior and the relation to each other of the different types of mental activity.
- health p. the aggregate of the specific educational, scientific, and professional contributions of the discipline of p. to the promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, the identification of etiologic and diagnostic correlates of health, illness, and related dysfunction, and the analysis and improvement of the health care system.
- holistic p. any psychologic system that postulates that the human mind or any mental process must be studied as a unit; e.g., gestaltism, existential p..
- humanistic p. an existential approach to p. that emphasizes human uniqueness, subjectivity, and capacity for psychologic growth.
- individual p. a theory of human behavior emphasizing humans' social nature, strivings for mastery, and drive to overcome, by compensation, feelings of inferiority. SYN: adlerian psychoanalysis, adlerian p..
- industrial p. the application of the principles of p. to problems in business and industry.
- medical p. the branch of p. concerned with the application of psychologic principles to the practice of medicine; the application of clinical p. or clinical health p., usually in a hospital setting.
- objective p. p. as studied by observation of the behavior and mental functions in others.
- subjective p. the study of one's own mind and its various modes of action as a basis for psychologic deductions.

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psy·chol·o·gy -jē n, pl -gies
1) the science of mind and behavior
2 a) the mental or behavioral characteristics typical of an individual or group or a particular form of behavior <mob \psychology> <the \psychology of arson>
b) the study of mind and behavior in relation to a particular field of knowledge or activity <color \psychology> <the \psychology of learning>
3) a treatise on or a school, system, or branch of psychology

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n.
the scientific study of behaviour and its related mental processes. Psychology is concerned with such matters as memory, rational and irrational thought, intelligence, learning, personality, perceptions, and emotions and their relationship to behaviour. Schools of psychology differ in their philosophy and methods. They include the introspectionist Freudian, Jungian, and Adlerian schools and the gestaltist, behaviourist, and cognitive schools; contemporary psychology tends strongly towards the latter (see cognitive psychology). Many practical psychologists profess not to belong to any school; some take an eclectic position. The branches of psychology, on the other hand, are functional or professional subspecialities based on practical considerations. They include abnormal, analytic, applied, clinical, comparative, developmental, educational, experimental, geriatric, industrial, infant, physiological, and social psychology.
psychological adj.

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psy·chol·o·gy (si-kolґə-je) [psycho- + -logy] the branch of science that deals with the mind and mental processes, especially in relation to human and animal behavior. psychologic, psychological adj

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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