study
Research, detailed examination, and/or analysis of an organism, object, or phenomena. [L. studium, s., inquiry]
- analytic s. in epidemiology, a s. designed to examine associations, commonly putative or hypothesized causal relationships; usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or with the health effects of specific exposures.
- blind s. a s. in which the experimenter is unaware of which group is subject to which procedure.
- case control s. an epidemiologic method that begins by identifying persons with the disease or condition of interest (the cases) and compares their past history of exposure to identified or suspected risk factors with the past history of similar exposures among persons who resemble the cases but do not have the disease or condition of interest (the controls).
- cohort s. a s. using epidemiologic methods, such as a clinical trial, in which a cohort with a particular attribute ( e.g., smokers, recipients of a drug) is followed prospectively and compared for some outcome ( e.g., disease, cure) with another cohort not possessing the attribute. SYN: follow-up s. (1).
- cross-over s. a s. in which the subject is switched from the experimental to the control procedure (or vice versa).
- cross-sectional s. a s. in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single point in time ( e.g., a survey in which all members of a given population, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled for a given characteristic or finding in one day). SYN: synchronic s..
- diachronic s. SYN: longitudinal s..
- double blind s. a s. in which neither the patients, the experimenter, nor any other assessor of the results, knows which individuals are subject to which procedure, thus helping to ensure that the biases or expectations of either will not influence the results.
- ecologic s. epidemiologic s. in which the units of analysis are populations or groups of people rather than individuals.
- flow-volume loop studies diagnostic methods in which inspiratory and expiratory flow-volume curves are used to determine the location of an obstruction in the tracheobronchial tree.
- follow-up s. 1. SYN: cohort s.. 2. s. in which persons exposed to risk or given a designated preventive or therapeutic regimen are observed over a period or at intervals to determine the outcome of the exposure or regimen.
- Framingham Heart S. the first major U.S. s. of the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, begun in Framingham, Massachusetts, in 1948 under the auspices of the National Heart Institute (now the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) and still in operation. Initially the Framingham researchers enrolled over 5000 people between the ages of 30 and 60 to s. the evolution of heart disease and identify risk factors for heart attack. In 1971, offspring of the original s. participants began to be enrolled for a second generation of observations.The Framingham s. has had a major impact on the modern understanding of cardiovascular disease and on the prevention and treatment not only of heart attack but also of stroke. During the 1960s, cigarette smoking, elevated cholesterol, hypertension, obesity, and lack of exercise were all statistically confirmed to be risk factors for heart attack. In the succeeding years, the s. has provided invaluable information on triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, mitral valve prolapse, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors in ethnic minorities, and the role of estrogen in preventing heart attack in postmenopausal women. After a half-century, the s. continues to provide new clues to the causation and prevention of heart disease and other cardiovascular disorders.
- longitudinal s. a s. of the natural course of life or disorder in which a cohort of subjects is serially observed over a period of time and no assumptions need be made about the stability of the system. SYN: diachronic s..
- multivariate studies the use of statistical techniques for the simultaneous investigations of the influence of several variables.
- synchronic s. SYN: cross-sectional s..

* * *

(studґe) 1. an examination or procedure. 2. a research project; see also examination, test, and trial.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • study — [stud′ē] n. pl. studies [ME studie < OFr estudie < L studium, zeal, study < studere, to busy oneself about, apply oneself to, study, orig., prob., to aim toward, strike at, akin to tundere, to strike, beat < IE * (s)teud < base *… …   English World dictionary

  • Study — Stud y, n.; pl. {Studies}. [OE. studie, L. studium, akin to studere to study; possibly akin to Gr. ? haste, zeal, ? to hasten; cf. OF. estudie, estude, F. [ e]tude. Cf. {Etude}, {Student}, {Studio}, {Study}, v. i.] 1. A setting of the mind or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Study — Stud y, v. t. 1. To apply the mind to; to read and examine for the purpose of learning and understanding; as, to study law or theology; to study languages. [1913 Webster] 2. To consider attentively; to examine closely; as, to study the work of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Study — may refer to: * Studying, to acquire knowledge on a subject through concentration on prepared learning materials * Study (drawing), a drawing, sketch or painting done in preparation for a finished piece * Study (room), a room in a home used as an …   Wikipedia

  • study — ► NOUN (pl. studies) 1) the devotion of time and attention to acquiring knowledge. 2) a detailed investigation and analysis of a subject or situation. 3) a room for reading, writing, or academic work. 4) a piece of work done for practice or as an …   English terms dictionary

  • study — (v.) early 12c., from O.Fr. estudier to study (Fr. étude), from M.L. studiare, from L. studium study, application, originally eagerness, from studere to be diligent ( to be pressing forward ), from PIE * (s)teu to push, stick, knock, beat (see… …   Etymology dictionary

  • study — [n] learning, analysis abstraction, academic work, analyzing, application, attention, class, cogitation, comparison, concentration, consideration, contemplation, course, cramming, debate, deliberation, examination, exercise, inquiry, inspection,… …   New thesaurus

  • Study — Stud y, v. i. [imp. & p. p. {Studied}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Studying}.] [OE. studien, OF. estudier, F. [ e]tudier. See {Study}, n.] 1. To fix the mind closely upon a subject; to dwell upon anything in thought; to muse; to ponder. Chaucer. [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • study — n concentration, application, *attention Analogous words: consideration, contemplation, weighing (see corresponding verbs at CONSIDER): reflection, thought, speculation (see corresponding verbs at THINK): pondering, musing, meditation, rumination …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Study — Study, Eduard, Mathematiker, geb. 23. März 1862 in Koburg, studierte in Jena, Straßburg, Leipzig und München, wurde 1885 Privatdozent in Leipzig, 1888 in Marburg, 1894 außerordentlicher Professor in Bonn, 1897 ordentlicher Professor in Greifswald …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • study — I verb acquire knowledge, analyze, apply the mind, attend, audit, cerebrate, consider, contemplate, devote oneself to, dissect, do research, educate oneself, examine, excogitate, explore, eye, incumbere, inquire into, inspect, intellectualize,… …   Law dictionary

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