substitution


substitution
1. In chemistry, the replacement of an atom or group in a compound by another atom or group ( e.g., s. of H by Cl in CH4 to give CH3Cl). 2. In psychoanalysis, an unconscious defense mechanism by which an unacceptable or unattainable goal, object, or emotion is replaced by one that is more acceptable or attainable; the process is more acute and direct, and less subtle, than sublimation. [L. substitutio, to put in place of another]
- generic s. the dispensing of a chemically equivalent, less expensive drug in place of a brand-name product that has an expired patent.
- stimulus s. SYN: classical conditioning.
- symptom s. an unconscious psychological process by which a repressed impulse is indirectly manifested through a particular symptom, e.g., anxiety, compulsion, depression, hallucination, obsession. SYN: symptom formation.

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sub·sti·tu·tion .səb-stə-'t(y)ü-shən n
1) a chemical reaction in which one or more atoms or groups in a molecule are replaced by equivalent atoms or groups to form at least two products esp the replacement of hydrogen in an organic compound by another element or group
2 a) the turning from an obstructed desire to another desire whose gratification is socially acceptable
b) the turning from an obstructed form of behavior to a different and often more primitive expression of the same tendency <a \substitution neurosis>
c) the reacting to each of a set of stimuli by a response prescribed in a key <a \substitution test for speed of learning new responses>

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n.
1. (in psychoanalysis) the replacement of one idea by another: a form of defence mechanism.
2. (symptom substitution) the supposed process whereby removing one psychological symptom leads to another symptom appearing if the basic psychological cause has not been removed. It is controversial whether this happens.

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sub·sti·tu·tion (sub″stĭ-tooґshən) 1. the act of putting one thing in the place of another, such as in a substitution reaction. 2. a defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which an unattainable or unacceptable goal, emotion, or object is replaced by one that is attainable or acceptable.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • substitution — [ sypstitysjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1297; sustitution h. XIIIe; lat. substitutio 1 ♦ Dr. Action de substituer (2o); disposition par laquelle on désigne une personne qui recueillera le don ou le legs au cas où le donataire, le légataire ne le recueillerait… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Substitution — (von lat. substituere ‚ersetzen‘) steht für: Mathematik/Informatik Substitution (Mathematik), das Ersetzen eines Ausdrucks Integration durch Substitution, eine Methode zur Lösung von Integralen Substitution (Logik), in der Logik die Ersetzung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Substitution — Substitution, Einführung neuer Veränderlicher, indem man die alten Veränderlichen gleich Funktionen der neuen setzt. Bei den eigentlichen Substitutionen sind die Koeffizienten in diesen Funktionen konstante Größen. Man betrachtet aber auch… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • substitution — sub·sti·tu·tion /ˌsəb stə tü shən, tyü / n: the substituting of one person or thing for another: as a in the civil law of Louisiana: a disposition not in trust by which a donee, heir, or legatee is charged to hold property transferred and return… …   Law dictionary

  • Substitution — Sub sti*tu tion, n. [L. substitutio: cf. F. substitution.] 1. The act of substituting or putting one person or thing in the place of another; as, the substitution of an agent, attorney, or representative to act for one in his absense; the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • substitution — Substitution. s. f. v. Disposition par laquelle on substituë ses biens, ou une partie de ses biens. En France il n y a point de substitution à l infini. la substitution n a lieu que jusqu au troisiéme degré. la substitution n est ouverte que par… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • substitution — [sub΄stə to͞o′shən, sub΄stətyo͞o′shən] n. the substituting of one person or thing for another substitutional adj. substitutionary * * * sub·sti·tu·tion (sŭb stĭ to͞oʹshən, tyo͞oʹ ) n. 1. a. The act or an instance of substituting. b. The state of… …   Universalium

  • Substitution — (lat.), Stellvertretung, Einsetzung eines Stellvertreters, namentlich seitens eines Prozeßbevollmächtigten, der seine Vollmacht auf einen andern überträgt; Substitutorium, die zur Beurkundung dessen ausgestellte Urkunde. Das Gemeine Recht kannte… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • substitution — late 14c., appointment of a subordinate or successor, from M.Fr. substitution, from L.L. substitutionem (nom. substitutio) a putting in place of another, from pp. stem of L. substituere put in place of another, place under or next to, from sub… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Substitution — (v. lat. Substitutio), 1) die Verfügung, wodurch Jemand einen Stellvertreter für sich ernennt; daher Substitutionsclausel (Clausula substituendi) in Vollmachten die dem Bevollmächtigten ertheilte Befugniß sich an seiner Statt auch einen… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Substitution — Substitution, lat. deutsch Stellvertretung; namentlich im Erbrecht letztwillige (Testament oder Erbvertrag) Einsetzung eines 2., 3. u.s.w. Erben, für den Fall, daß der Erstbedachte nicht Erbe sein will oder vorher stirbt (substitutio vulgaris);… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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