toxoplasmosis


toxoplasmosis
Disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which can produce abortion in sheep, encephalitis in mink, and a variety of syndromes in humans. Prenatally acquired human infection can result in the presence of abnormalities such as microcephalus or hydrocephalus at birth, the development of jaundice with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis in early childhood, or the delayed appearance of ocular lesions such as chorioretinitis in later childhood. Postnatally acquired human infections typically remain subclinical; if clinical disease does occur, symptoms include fever, lymphadenopathy, headache, myalgia, and fatigue, with eventual recovery, except in the immunocompromised patient where fatal encephalitis often develops.
- acquired t. in adults a form of t. that may result in fever, encephalomyelitis, chorioretinopathy, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, myalgia, myocarditis, and pneumonitis; a lymphadenopathic form seems to be more prevalent in adults, and such persons may manifest fever, lymphadenopathy, malaise, and headache, a form frequently found in patients with AIDS.
- congenital t. t. apparently resulting from parasites in an infected mother being transmitted in utero to the fetus, observed as three syndromes: 1) acute : most of the organs contain foci of necrosis in association with fever, jaundice, hydrocephaly, encephalomyelitis, pneumonitis, cutaneous rash, ophthalmic lesions, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly; 2) subacute : most of the lesions are partly healed or calcified, but those in the brain and eye seem to remain active, inasmuch as chorioretinitis is observed in more than 80% of diseased infants; 3) chronic : usually not recognized during the newborn period, but chorioretinitis and cerebral lesions may be detected weeks to years later.

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toxo·plas·mo·sis -.plaz-'mō-səs n, pl -mo·ses -.sēz infection with or disease caused by a sporozoan of the genus Toxoplasma (T. gondii) that invades the tissues and may seriously damage the central nervous system esp. of infants

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n.
a disease of mammals and birds caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which is usually transmitted to humans through ingesting undercooked meat or cat faeces. Generally symptoms are mild (swollen lymph nodes and an influenza-like illness), but the disease can be serious in immunocompromised patients. Infection usually confers lifelong immunity. If caught during pregnancy it can cause congenital toxoplasmosis in the unborn baby. Although most babies are unaffected or have very mild disease, some can have severe malformations of the skull and eyes or active infection in the liver. It can also cause stillbirth. Infection can be detected by blood tests in the mother; if the diagnosis is confirmed, the mother can be treated with spiramycin.

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tox·o·plas·mo·sis (tok″so-plaz-moґsis) [toxo- + plasma + -osis] infection by the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii, transmitted in oocysts in the feces of cats (the definitive host), usually by contaminated soil, exposure to feces, tissue cysts in infected meat, or tachyzoites in blood. Most human infections are asymptomatic; when symptoms do occur, they are often a mild disease resembling mononucleosis. Occasionally toxoplasmosis becomes a fulminating, disseminated disease, usually in an immunocompromised patient or a fetus infected transplacentally; this may cause extensive damage to the brain, eyes, skeletal muscles, heart, liver, or lungs. See also toxoplasmic meningoencephalitis and toxoplasmic chorioretinitis. Chorioretinitis may occur with any form but is most often a late sequel of the congenital type. In domestic animals toxoplasmosis may be any of several nonfatal conditions such as a type of infectious abortion in ewes.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Toxoplasmosis — Classification and external resources T. gondii tachyzoites ICD 10 B58 …   Wikipedia

  • toxoplasmosis — f. parasit. Enfermedad provocada por el protozoo Toxoplasma gondii. Se trata de un parásito intestinal del gato, que puede parasitar al hombre y otros animales. La infección en el caso del hombre se produce por la ingestión de alimentos… …   Diccionario médico

  • toxoplasmosis — 1977, from toxoplasma (1926), coined 1909 in French from toxo , comb. form of Gk. toxon (see TOXIC (Cf. toxic)) + plasma (see PLASMA (Cf. plasma)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • toxoplasmosis — f. Med. Enfermedad producida por protozoos del género Toxoplasma que, contraída durante la gestación, puede ocasionar anomalías fetales …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • toxoplasmosis — [täk΄sō plaz mō′sis] n. [ModL: see TOXIC, PLASM, & OSIS] a disease caused by a protozoan (Toxoplasma gondii), affecting humans and animals, esp. in the tropics: in its congenital form, it damages the central nervous system, eyes, and viscera …   English World dictionary

  • Toxoplasmosis — Taquizoítos (trofozoítos de T. gondii) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Toxoplasmosis — ► sustantivo femenino MEDICINA Enfermedad parasitaria causada por un protozoo. IRREG. plural toxoplasmosis * * * toxoplasmosis. f. Med. Enfermedad producida por protozoos del género Toxoplasma que, contraída durante la gestación, puede ocasionar… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • toxoplasmosis — {{#}}{{LM T43927}}{{〓}} {{[}}toxoplasmosis{{]}} ‹to·xo·plas·mo·sis› {{◆}}(pl. toxoplasmosis){{◇}} {{《}}▍ s.f.{{》}} Enfermedad producida por un tipo de protozoos y que, si se contrae durante la gestación, puede ocasionar anomalías fetales …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

  • toxoplasmosis — /tok soh plaz moh sis/, n. Pathol. infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, transmitted to humans by consumption of insufficiently cooked meat containing the parasite or by contact with contaminated cats or their feces: the illness produced …   Universalium

  • toxoplasmosis — n. a disease of mammals and birds caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which is usually transmitted to humans through ingesting undercooked meat or cat faeces. Generally symptoms are mild (swollen lymph nodes and an influenza like illness) …   The new mediacal dictionary


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