- Antinuclear antibody
- An unusual antibody that is directed against structures within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in patients whose immune system is predisposed to cause inflammation against their own body tissues. Antibodies that are directed against one's own tissues are referred to as autoantibodies. The propensity for the immune system to work against its own body is referred to as autoimmunity. ANAs indicate the possible presence of autoimmunity. The fluorescent antinuclear antibody test (FANA) was designed by George Friou, M.D. in 1957. It is done on a blood sample. The antibodies in the serum of the blood are exposed in the laboratory to cells and then one determines whether or not antibodies are present that react with various parts of the nucleus of the cell. It is a sensitive screening test used to detect autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases are conditions characterized by a disorder of the immune system featured by the abnormal production of antibodies (autoantibodies) directed against the tissues of the body. Autoimmune diseases are typically feature inflammation of various tissues of the body. ANAs are found in patients with a number of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, scleroderma, Hashimoto thyroiditis, juvenile diabetes mellitus, Addison disease, vitiligo, pernicious anemia, glomerulonephritis, and pulmonary fibrosis. ANAs can also be found in patients with chronic infections and cancer. Many medications including procainamide (PROCAN SR), hydralazine, and dilantin can stimulate the production of ANAs. ANAs present different patterns depending on the staining of the cell nucleus in the laboratory: homogeneous, or diffuse; speckled; nucleolar; and peripheral or rim. While these patterns are not specific for any one illness, certain illnesses can more frequently be associated with one pattern or another. For example, the nucleolar pattern is more commonly seen in the disease scleroderma. The speckled pattern is seen in many conditions and in persons who do not have any autoimmune disease.
Medical dictionary. 2011.
Look at other dictionaries:
Antinuclear antibody test — A test for unusual antibodies that are directed against structures within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) indicate the possible presence of autoimmunity. The fluorescent antinuclear antibody test (FANA) was designed by… … Medical dictionary
Antibody, antinuclear — An unusual antibody that is directed against structures within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are found in patients whose immune system is predisposed to cause inflammation against their own body tissues. Antibodies that… … Medical dictionary
antinuclear — Having an affinity for or reacting with the cell nucleus. * * * an·ti·nu·cle·ar n(y)ü klē ər adj being antibodies or autoantibodies that react with components and esp. DNA of cell nuclei and that tend to occur frequently in connective tissue… … Medical dictionary
antinuclear antibodies — (ANA) antibodies directed against nuclear antigens; ones against a variety of different antigens are almost invariably found in systemic lupus erythematosus and are frequently found in rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma (systemic sclerosis),… … Medical dictionary
antibody — An immunoglobulin molecule produced by B lymphoid cells with a specific amino acid sequence evoked in humans or other animals by an antigen (immunogen). These molecules are characterized by reacting specifically with the antigen in some… … Medical dictionary
antinuclear factor — (ANF) see under antibody … Medical dictionary
Anti-nuclear antibody — Anti nuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as anti nuclear factor or ANF ) are antibodies directed against contents of the cell nucleus. [MeshName|Antinuclear+Antibody] They are present in higher than normal numbers in autoimmune disease. The ANA… … Wikipedia
anti-dsDNA antibody — a type of antinuclear antibody specific for double stranded DNA, found in the serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus … Medical dictionary
antiâ€“SS-A antibody — an antinuclear antibody that occurs in SjÑ†gren syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. Called also anti Ro a … Medical dictionary
antiâ€“SS-B antibody — an antinuclear antibody that occurs in SjÑ†gren syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. Called also anti La a … Medical dictionary