Nephrocalcinosis


Nephrocalcinosis
The deposition of calcium (in the form of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate) in the substance of the kidney, a process that can impair the function of the kidney function. Nephrocalcinosis is caused by a number of conditions including: the excess excretion of calcium by the kidney, renal tubular acidosis, medullary sponge kidney, hypercalcemia (high calcium levels in the blood), renal cortical necrosis, and tuberculosis. Nephrocalcinosis is relatively common in premature infants, partly from intrinsic kidney calcium losses and partly from enhanced calcium excretion when they are given diuretics. Fragments of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate may break free from the kidney and provide nuclei for the formation of kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Nephrocalcinosis may eventually result in acute obstructive uropathy or chronic obstructive uropathy, leading to eventual kidney failure. The disorder is often discovered when symptoms of renal insufficiency/renal failure, obstructive uropathy, or urinary tract stones develop.
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A form of renal lithiasis characterized by diffusely scattered foci of calcification in the renal parenchyma; deposits of calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate monohydrate, and similar compounds are usually demonstrable radiologically. [nephro- + calcinosis]

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neph·ro·cal·ci·no·sis -.kal-si-'nō-səs n, pl -no·ses -.sēz a condition marked by calcification of the tubules of the kidney

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n.
the presence of calcium deposits in the kidneys. This can be caused by excess calcium in the blood, as caused by overactivity of the parathyroid glands, or it may result from an underlying abnormality of the kidney. The cause of nephrocalcinosis must be detected by full biochemical, radiological, and urological investigation so that appropriate treatment can be undertaken.

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neph·ro·cal·ci·no·sis (nef″ro-kal″si-noґsis) [nephro- + calcinosis] a condition characterized by precipitation of calcium salts such as calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate in the renal tubules, sometimes resulting in nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency, and polyuria.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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