- Although there are many meanings to the word "operation", in medicine it refers to a surgical procedure. To put matters more formally, an operation is "an act or series of acts performed upon the body with the hand alone or by means of an instrument", the aim being "to remedy deformity or injury, cure or prevent disease, or relieve pain." There are many operations named after persons. They range from A to Z: from the Abbe operation (on the lip) to the Ziegler operation (on the iris of the eye).
* * *1. Any surgical procedure. 2. The act, manner, or process of functioning. SEE ALSO: method, procedure, technique.- Altemeier o. an o. for rectal prolapse that involves a sleeve resection of the prolapsed rectum and colon with a primary anastomosis performed transanally.- arterial switch o. o. for complete transposition of the great arteries; the most common way to repair this defect consists of switching the aorta and pulmonary arteries and implanting the coronary arteries into the neoaorta (the original pulmonary artery).- Barkan o. goniotomy for congenital glaucoma under direct observation of the anterior chamber angle.- Billroth o. I excision of the pylorus and antrum and partial closure of the gastric end with end-to-end anastomosis of stomach and duodenum.- Billroth o. II excision of the pylorus and antrum with closure of the cut ends of the duodenum and stomach, followed by a gastrojejunostomy.- Blalock-Hanlon o. the creation of a large atrial septal defect as a palliative procedure for complete transposition of the great arteries.- Blalock-Taussig o. an o. for congenital malformations of the heart, in which an abnormally small volume of blood passes through the pulmonary circuit; blood from the systemic circulation is directed to the lungs by anastomosing the right or left subclavian artery to the right or left pulmonary artery.- Bozeman o. an o. for uterovaginal fistula, the cervix uteri being attached to the bladder and opening into its cavity.- Bricker o. an o. utilizing an isolated segment of ileum to collect urine from the ureters and conduct it to the skin surface.- Caldwell-Luc o. an intraoral procedure for opening into the maxillary antrum through the supradental (canine) fossa above the maxillary premolar teeth. SYN: intraoral antrostomy, Luc o..- Carmody-Batson o. reduction of fractures of the zygoma and zygomatic arch through an intraoral incision above the maxillary molar teeth.- commando o. SYN: commando procedure.- concrete operations in the psychology of Piaget, a stage of development in thinking, occurring approximately between 7 and 11 years of age, during which a child becomes capable of reasoning about concrete situations.- cricoid split o. an o. to repair subglottic stenosis by transecting the anterior and posterior aspects of the ring of the cricoid cartilage, with or without the insertion of grafts to reconstruct the subglottic lumen.- endolymphatic shunt o. an o. to establish a communication between the endolymphatic sac and the cerebrospinal fluid space for the treatment of Ménière disease.- fenestration o. a rarely used surgical procedure producing an opening from the external auditory canal to the membranous labyrinth to improve hearing in hearing impairment of the conduction type due to otosclerosis.- filtering o. a surgical procedure for creation of a fistula between the anterior chamber of the eye and the subconjunctival space in treatment of glaucoma.- Finney o. gastroduodenostomy that creates, by the technique of closure, a large opening to ensure free emptying from the stomach.- flap o. 1. SYN: flap amputation. 2. in dental surgery, an o. in which a portion of the mucoperiosteal tissues is surgically detached from the underlying bone or impacted tooth for better access and visibility in exploring the area covered by the tissue. SEE ALSO: flap.- formal operations in the psychology of Piaget, a stage of development in thinking, occurring approximately between 11 and 15 years of age, during which a child becomes capable of reasoning about abstract situations; reasoning at this stage is comparable to that of normal adults but less sophisticated.- Fothergill o. SYN: Manchester o..- Freund o. 1. total abdominal hysterectomy for uterine cancer; 2. chondrotomy to relieve Freund anomaly.- Gilliam o. an o. for retroversion of the uterus by suturing round ligaments to abdominal wall fascia.- Gillies o. a technique for reducing fractures of the zygoma and the zygomatic arch through an incision in the temporal region above the hairline.- Gil-Vernet o. SYN: extended pyelotomy.- Glenn o. anastomosis between the superior vena cava and the right main pulmonary artery to increase pulmonary blood flow as a palliative correction for tricuspid atresia.- Graefe o. 1. removal of cataract by a limbal incision with capsulotomy and iridectomy. Both operations were landmarks in the field of ophthalmic surgery; 2. iridectomy for glaucoma.- Hartmann o. resection of the sigmoid colon beginning at or just above the peritoneal reflexion and extending proximally, with closure of the rectal stump and end-colostomy.- Hill o. repair of hiatus hernia; anchoring the esophagogastric junction within the abdomen by attaching it to the medial arcuate ligament.- Hoffa o. in congenital dislocation of the hip, a rarely used o. consisting of hollowing out the acetabulum and reduction of the head of the femur after severing the muscles inserted into the upper portion of the bone.- Hofmeister o. partial gastrectomy with closure of a portion of the lesser curvature and retrocolic anastomosis of the remainder to jejunum.- Hummelsheim o. transplantation of a normal ocular rectus muscle, to substitute for a paralyzed muscle.- interval o. an o. performed during a period of quiescence or of intermission in the condition necessitating surgery.- Jansen o. an o. for frontal sinus disease; the lower wall and lower portion of the anterior wall are removed and the mucous membrane is curetted away.- Kazanjian o. surgical extension of the vestibular sulcus of edentulous ridges to increase their height and to improve denture retention. SEE ALSO: ridge extension.- Keen o. removal of sections of the posterior branches of the spinal nerves to the affected muscles, and of the spinal accessory nerve, as a cure for torticollis.- Keller-Madlener o. an o. for treatment of gastric ulcer located in the proximal cardia that involves 75% gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy.- Kelly o. 1. correction of retroversion of the uterus by plication of uterosacral ligaments; 2. correction of urinary stress incontinence by vaginally placing sutures beneath the bladder neck.- Killian o. an o. for frontal sinus disease in which the entire anterior wall is removed and the mucous membrane is curetted away; the ethmoid cells are removed through an opening in the nasal process of the maxillary bone, and the upper portion of the medial wall of the orbit is removed as well.- Koerte-Ballance o. operative anastomosis of the facial and hypoglossal nerves for the treatment of facial paralysis.- Kondoleon o. excision of strips of subcutaneous connective tissue for the relief of elephantiasis.- Kraske o. removal of the coccyx and excision of the left wing of the sacrum to afford approach for resection of the rectum for cancer or stenosis.- Lambrinudi o. a form of triple arthrodesis done in such a manner as to prevent foot-drop such as occurs in poliomyelitis.- Laroyenne o. puncture of Douglas pouch to evacuate the pus and to secure drainage in cases of pelvic suppuration.- Lash o. removal of a wedge of the internal cervical os with suturing of the internal os into a tighter canal structure.- LeCompte o. SYN: LeCompte maneuver.- Luc o. SYN: Caldwell-Luc o..- major o. an extensive, relatively difficult surgical procedure involving vital organs and/or in itself hazardous to life.- Manchester o. a vaginal o. for prolapse of the uterus, consisting of cervical amputation and parametrial fixation (cardinal ligaments) anterior to the uterus. SYN: Fothergill o.. [Manchester, England]- Mann-Williamson o. an o. performed on experimental animals (dogs) in research on peptic ulcer, the duodenum with its alkaline secretions being transplanted into the ileum and the cut end of the jejunum anastomosed to the pylorus; the animals develop ulcers in the jejunum, which directly receives the gastric juice.- Mayo o. an o. for the radical cure of umbilical hernia; the neck of the sac is exposed by two elliptical incisions, the gut is returned to the abdomen, the sac and adherent omentum are cut away, and the fascial edges of the opening are overlapped with mattress sutures.- McIndoe o. o. for the development of a neovagina using a split thickness skin graft over a vaginal mold.- McVay o. repair of inguinal and femoral hernias by suture of the transversus abdominis muscle and its associated fasciae (transversus layer) to the pectineal ligament.- mika o. the establishment of a permanent fistula in the bulbous portions of the urethra to render the man incapable of procreating; said to be a practice among certain Australian aborigines. [Australian native term]- Mikulicz o. excision of bowel in two stages: 1) exteriorizing the diseased area, suturing efferent and afferent limbs together, and closing the abdomen around them, after which the diseased part is excised; 2) at a later time, cutting the spur with an enterotome and closing the stoma extraperitoneally.- morcellation o. vaginal hysterectomy in which the uterus is removed in multiple pieces after being split or partitioned.- Motais o. transplantation of the middle third of the tendon of the superior rectus muscle of the eyeball into the upper lid, between the tarsus and skin, to supplement the action of the levator muscle in ptosis.- Mules o. evisceration of the eyeball followed by the insertion within the sclera of a spherical prosthesis to support an artificial eye.- Mustard o. correction, at the atrial level, of hemodynamic abnormality caused by transposition of the great arteries by an intraatrial baffle to direct pulmonary venous blood through the tricuspid orifice into the right ventricle and the systemic venous blood through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. SYN: Mustard procedure.- Naffziger o. orbital decompression for severe malignant exophthalmos by removal of the lateral and superior orbital walls.- Norwood o. o. performed in infants with subaortic stenosis and tricuspid atresia; the pulmonary artery is divided and both ends are attached to the aorta, the distal end via a prosthetic graft.- Ogston-Luc o. an o. for frontal sinus disease; a skin incision is made from the inner third of the edge of the orbit toward the root of the nose or outward; the periosteum is pushed upward and outward, and the sinus is opened on the outer side of the median line; then a wide opening is made by curetting the nasofrontal duct, interior of the sinus, and anterior ethmoid cells.- Ogura o. orbital decompression by removal of the floor of the orbit through an opening made in the supradental (canine) fossa.- Ombrédanne o. a technique whereby the mobilized testis is brought down into the scrotum and through the scrotal septum, to be affixed to the tissues in the contralateral scrotal pouch. SYN: transseptal orchiopexy.- Payne o. a jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity utilizing end-to-side anastomosis of the upper jejunum to the terminal ileum, with closure of the proximal end of the bypassed intestine.- Pólya o. SYN: Pólya gastrectomy.- Potts o. direct side-to-side anastomosis between aorta and pulmonary artery as a palliative procedure in congenital malformation of the heart. SYN: Potts anastomosis.- pubovaginal o. operative procedure for urinary incontinence. A strip of tissue, usually autologous rectus abdominis fascia, is used to suspend or elevate bladder neck and posterior urethra toward pubic symphysis.- Putti-Platt o. a procedure for recurrent anterior dislocation of shoulder joint. SYN: Putti-Platt procedure.- radical o. for hernia an o. by which the hernia is not only reduced, but the hernial defect is also repaired.- Rastelli o. for “anatomic” repair of transposition of the great arteries (ventriculoarterial discordance) with ventricular septal defect and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; conduits are used to create left ventricular to aortic continuity and right ventricular to pulmonary artery continuity. All septal defects are obliterated, as are any previously constructed palliative shunts.- Ridell o. removal of the entire anterior and inferior walls of the frontal sinus, for chronic inflammation of that cavity.- Ripstein o. an o. for rectal prolapse that involves a transabdominal approach with dissection around the rectum and placement of a mesh sling to prevent the bowel from prolapsing through the anus.- Roux-en-Y o. anastomosis of the distal end of the divided upper jejunum to the stomach, esophagus, biliary tract, or other structure and anastomosis of the proximal end to the side of the jejunum a little further distal.- Saenger o. cesarean section followed by careful closure of the uterine wound by three tiers of sutures.- Schauta vaginal o. an extensive extirpation of the uterus and the adnexa, using the vaginal approach facilitated by Schuchardt o..- Schuchardt o. a paravaginal rectal displacement incision, a surgical technique of making the upper vagina accessible for fistula closure or radical surgery via the vagina.- Scott o. a jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity utilizing end-to-end anastomosis of the upper jejunum to the terminal ileum, with the bypassed intestine closed proximally and anastomosed distally to the colon.- second-look o. exploratory celiotomy within a year after apparently curative resection of intraabdominal cancer, in patients with no sign or symptom of recurrence, to resect an occult tumor if present.- Senning o. an atrial switch o. for patients with transposition of the great arteries that employs a septal flap instead of excising the atrial septum as in the Mustard o., thus minimizing foreign material and allowing for growth.- seton o. an o. for advanced glaucoma; passage of a tube or seton into the anterior chamber to act as a wick.- Shirodkar o. a cerclage procedure done by purse-string suturing of an incompetent cervical os with a nonabsorbent suture material.- Sistrunk o. excision of the thyroglossal cyst and duct including the midportion of the hyoid bone through, or near, which the duct traverses.- Smith o. SYN: Smith-Indian o..- Smith-Boyce o. SYN: anatrophic nephrotomy.- Spinelli o. an o. splitting the anterior wall of the prolapsed uterus and reversing the organ preliminary to reduction.- stapes mobilization o. now infrequently used o. involving fracture of otosclerotic tissue immobilizing the stapes to restore hearing.- Stookey-Scarff o. third ventriculostomy.- subcutaneous o. an o., as for the division of a tendon, performed without incising the skin other than by a minute opening made by the entering knife.- talc o. an obsolete o. in which magnesium silicate (talc) powder is applied to the epicardium to create a sterile granulomatous pericarditis and thus promote pericardial anastomoses with the coronary circulation. SYN: poudrage (2).- Urban o. extended radical mastectomy, including en bloc resection of internal mammary lymph node s, part of the sternum, and costal cartilages.- Waterston o. a surgically created anastomosis between the pulmonary artery and the ascending aorta to palliate adult tetralogy of Fallot.- Wertheim o. a radical o. for carcinoma of the uterus in which as much as possible of the vagina is excised and there is wide lymph node excision.- Whitehead o. excision of hemorrhoids by two circular incisions above and below involved veins, allowing normal mucosa to be pulled down and sutured to anal skin.
* * *op·er·a·tion .äp-ə-'rā-shən n a procedure performed on a living body usu. with instruments for the repair of damage or the restoration of health and esp. one that involves incision, excision, or suturing
* * *op·er·a·tion (op″ər-aґshən) [L. operatio] 1. any act performed with instruments or by the hands of a surgeon; a surgical procedure. 2. the process or act of functioning, doing, or performing.
For terms not found here, see also method, procedure, repair, surgery, technique, or the specific type of operation such as amputation.
Medical dictionary. 2011.
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