glucose


glucose
glu·cose 'glü-.kōs, -.kōz n an optically active sugar C6H12O6 that has an aldehydic carbonyl group esp the sweet colorless soluble dextrorotatory form that occurs widely in nature and is the usual form in which carbohydrate is assimilated by animals

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n.
a simple sugar containing six carbon atoms (a hexose). Glucose is an important source of energy in the body and the sole source of energy for the brain. Free glucose is not found in many foods (grapes are an exception); however, glucose is one of the constituents of both sucrose and starch, both of which yield glucose after digestion. Glucose is stored in the body in the form of glycogen. The concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at around 5 mmol/l by a variety of hormones, principally insulin and glucagon. If the blood-glucose concentration falls below this level neurological and other symptoms may result (see hypoglycaemia). Conversely, if the blood-glucose level is raised above its normal level, to 10 mmol/l, the condition of hyperglycaemia develops. This is a symptom of diabetes mellitus.

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glu·cose (glooґkōs) [Gr. gleukos sweetness] 1. an aldohexose, C6H12O6, occurring naturally as the D- form and found as a free monosaccharide in fruits and other plants and in the normal blood of all animals; it also is combined in glucosides and di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. It is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and is the chief source of energy for living organisms, its utilization being controlled by insulin. Excess glucose is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles for use as needed and, beyond that, is converted to fat and stored as adipose tissue. See also hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. In pharmaceuticals it is called dextrose. 2. liquid g.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • Glucose — β D glucopyranose : représentations hexagonale et …   Wikipédia en Français

  • glucose — [ glykoz ] n. m. • 1838; de gluc(o) et 1. ose ♦ Biochim. Glucide à 6 atomes de carbone (C6H12O6) très répandu dans la nature (miel, raisin, amidon), qui représente la source énergétique essentielle de l organisme. ⇒ dextrose. Glucose du sang. ⇒… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Glucose — Glu cose , n. [Gr. ? sweet. Cf. {Glycerin}.] [1913 Webster] 1. A variety of sugar occurring in nature very abundantly, as in ripe grapes, and in honey, and produced in great quantities from starch, etc., by the action of heat and acids. It is… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Glucose — Glucose, Traubenzucker, Kohlenhydrat aus der Gruppe der ⇒ Monosaccharide; Aldohexose mit der Summenformel C6H12O6; kommt in der D Form in allen lebenden Zellen sowie in Früchten, Nektar, Honig, Samen, in Blut und Gewebsflüssigkeit der Tiere vor.… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • glucose — 1840, from Fr. glucose (1838), said to have been coined by Fr. professor Eugène Melchior Péligot (1811 1890) from Gk. gleukos must, sweet wine, related to glykys sweet, delightful, dear, from *glku , dissimilated in Greek from PIE *dlk u sweet… …   Etymology dictionary

  • glucose — glucose. См. виноградный сахар. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Glucose — (fr., spr. Glükos), Krümel od. Fruchtzucker …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • glucose — s. f. Ver glicose …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • glucose — ► NOUN ▪ a simple sugar which is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates. ORIGIN Greek gleukos sweet wine …   English terms dictionary

  • glucose — [glo͞o′kōs΄] n. [Fr < Gr gleúkos, sweet wine, sweetness, akin to glykys, sweet: see GLYCERIN] a crystalline monosaccharide occurring naturally in fruits, honey, and blood: the commercial form, also containing dextrin and maltose, is prepared… …   English World dictionary

  • Glucose — This article is about the naturally occurring D form of glucose. For the L form, see L Glucose. D glucose …   Wikipedia