Vector, cloning

Vector, cloning
A DNA molecule originating from a virus, a plasmid (see below) or the cell of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment can be integrated without loss of the vector's (carrier's) capacity for self-replication. Cloning vectors are used to introduce foreign DNA into host cells, where that DNA can be reproduced (cloned) in large quantities. Examples of cloning vectors are plasmids, cosmids, and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs): {{}}Plasmid: Autonomously (self) replicating, extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules, distinct from the normal bacterial genome and usually not essential for cell survival. Some plasmids are capable of integrating into the host genome. A number of artificially constructed plasmids are used as cloning vectors. Cosmid: An artificially constructed cloning vector containing a gene (the cos gene) of the virus called phage lambda. Cosmids can be packaged in lambda phage particles for infection into the bacteria E. coli; this permits the cloning of larger DNA fragments than can be introduced into bacterial hosts using plasmid vectors. Yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC): A vector (carrier) created and used in the laboratory to clone pieces of DNA, a YAC is constructed from the telomeric (end), centromeric, and replication origin sequences needed for the replication of the cloned DNA within yeast cells. Cloning vectors are often recombinant DNA molecules containing DNA sequences from several sources.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vector (molecular biology) — In molecular biology, a vector is any vehicle used to transfer foreign genetic material into another cell. The vector itself is generally a DNA sequence that consists of an insert (transgene) and a larger sequence that serves as the backbone of… …   Wikipedia

  • Vector — may refer to: In mathematics * Euclidean vector, a geometric entity endowed with both length and direction, an element of a Euclidean vector space * Coordinate vector, in linear algebra, an explicit representation of an element of any abstract… …   Wikipedia

  • cloning vector — cloning vector. См. клонирующий вектор. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Cloning — For the cloning of human beings, see Human cloning. For other uses, see Cloning (disambiguation). The sea anemone, Anthopleura elegantissima in process of cloning Cloning in biology is the process of producing similar populations of …   Wikipedia

  • Cloning vector — The pGEX 3x plasmid is a popular cloning vector. A cloning vector is a small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted. The insertion of the fragment into the cloning vector is carried out by treating the vehicle and the… …   Wikipedia

  • Vector NTI — Infobox Software name = Vector NTI caption = developer = Invitrogen latest release version = 10.3.0 (Windows), 7.1 (OS X) latest release date = release date|2006|07|31 operating system = Mac OS X, Windows genre = Molecular biology toolkit license …   Wikipedia

  • Vector — In medicine, a vector is a carrier. The best way to understand a vector is to recall its origin as a word. Vector is the Latin word for a bearer. In parasitology (the study of parasitic organisms), the vector carries the parasitic agent. For… …   Medical dictionary

  • Cloning vector — A DNA molecule originating from a virus, a plasmid (see below) or the cell of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment can be integrated without loss of the vector s (carrier s) capacity for self replication. Cloning vectors are used to… …   Medical dictionary

  • Vector (biology) — In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which transmits infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. A classic example is the anopheles mosquito which acts as a vector for the disease malaria… …   Wikipedia

  • cloning vector — A plasmid vector that can be used to transfer DNA from one cell type to another. Cloning vectors are usually designed to have convenient restriction sites that can be cut to generate sticky ends to which the DNA that is to be cloned can be… …   Dictionary of molecular biology