Vitamin B — nicotinic acid
Deficiency of nicotinic acid (also known as niacin), one of the B-complex vitamins, causes pellagra. Pellagra was known as the "disease of the four D's" — dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death. The disease is specifically characterized by: Dermatitis: A rash on areas of the skin exposed to light or trauma and ulcerations within the mouth Diarrhea Dementia: Mental disorientation, confusion, delusions and depression Death, if untreated. Pellagra, once a puzzle, was solved by Joseph Goldberger (1874-1929). Serving in the Public Health Service, Dr. Goldberger proposed that pellagra was due to a nutritional deficiency and in 1915 began experiments with Mississippi prison inmates (who "volunteered" in return for full pardons). Dr. Goldberger fed them a poor diet he believed caused pellagra and within months, many developed the disease. Their symptoms of pellagra were reversed when meat, fresh vegetables and milk were added to their diet. Niacin, Dr. Goldberger subsequently showed, was the principle that had this remarkable effect. A readily-available B vitamin, niacin cures pellagra and prevents it. The name "pellagra" comes from the Italian "pelle", skin + "agra", rough = rough skin, referring to the skin problems in pellagra.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • nicotinic acid — ic o*tin ic ac id, n. (Chem.) An organic acid ({C6H5NO2}), a carboxylated derivative of pyridine, obtained by the oxidation of nicotine; called also {niacin} and {antipellagra vitamin}, and {vitamin B5}. Chemically it is 3 pyridinecarboxylic acid …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate — Identifiers CAS number 5502 96 5 …   Wikipedia

  • nicotinic acid — ► NOUN Biochemistry ▪ a vitamin of the B complex which occurs in milk, wheat germ, meat, and other foods …   English terms dictionary

  • nicotinic acid — n. a white, odorless, crystalline substance, C6H5NO, found in protein foods or prepared synthetically: it is a member of the vitamin B complex and is used in the treatment of pellagra …   English World dictionary

  • Nicotinic acid — Deficiency of nicotinic acid (also known as niacin), one of the B complex vitamins, causes pellagra. Pellagra was known as the disease of the four D s dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death. The disease is specifically characterized by:… …   Medical dictionary

  • nicotinic acid — niacin a B vitamin. Nicotinic acid is a derivative of pyridine and is interchangeable with its amide, nicotinamide. Both forms of the vitamin are equally active. Nicotinamide is a component of the coenzymes NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • nicotinic acid — niacin iacin n. A B vitamin (vitamin B5) essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Called also {nicotinic acid} and {antipellagra vitamin}. Chemical formula {C6H5NO2}, chemically it is 3… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • nicotinic acid — Biochem. a crystalline acid, C6H5NO2, that is a component of the vitamin B complex, found in fresh meat, yeast, etc., produced by the oxidation of nicotine, and used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra. Also called niacin, vitamin B3.… …   Universalium

  • nicotinic acid — nic′otin′ic ac′id n. biochem. a crystalline acid, C6H5NO2, that is a component of the vitamin B complex, occurring in animal products, yeast, etc Also called niacin vitamin B3 • Etymology: 1885–90 …   From formal English to slang

  • nicotinic acid — noun pyridine 3 carboxylic acid; together with nicotinamide is a part of the vitamin B complex. Syn: E375, colour retention agent, niacin …   Wiktionary

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