Dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin, either due to direct contact with an irritating substance, or to an allergic reaction. Symptoms of dermatitis include redness, itching, and in some cases blistering. There are two types of dermatitis: eczematous (eczema) and noneczematous (also called occupational). Eczema can be particularly severe and difficult to treat once it is established. It can be caused by direct contact, or it may emerge when an allergen is breathed in, injected, or ingested. Noneczematous dermatitis is usually due to direct contact with an irritant. Frequent offenders include detergents, especially those with perfumes; chemicals used in photo development; and some types of solvents. Treatment is two-fold. People who suffer from dermatitis must identify and avoid substances that cause attacks. During attacks they may use topical treatments, such as steroid creams.
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Inflammation of the skin. [derm- + G. -itis, inflammation]
- d. aestivalis eczema recurring during the summer.
- allergic contact d. a delayed type IV allergic reaction of the skin with varying degrees of erythema, edema, and vesiculation resulting from cutaneous contact with a specific allergen. SYN: contact allergy.
- ancylostoma d. SYN: cutaneous larva migrans.
- d. artefacta self-induced skin lesions resulting from habitual rubbing, scratching or hair-pulling, malingering, or mental disturbance. SYN: factitial d., feigned eruption.
- atopic d. d. characterized by the distinctive phenomena of atopy, including infantile and flexural eczema. SYN: atopic eczema.
- berloque d., berlock d. a type of photosensitization resulting in deep brown pigmentation on exposure to sunlight after application of bergamot oil and other essential oils in perfumes and colognes.
- blastomycetic d., d. blastomycotica cutaneous blastomycosis.
- bubble gum d. allergic contact d. developing about the lips in children who chew bubble gum; caused by plastics in the gum substance.
- d. calorica SYN: erythema ab igne.
- caterpillar d. allergic contact d. caused by the larva of the brown-tail moth, puss caterpillar, gypsy moths, and other caterpillars. SYN: caterpillar rash.
- chemical d. allergic contact d. or primary irritation d. due to application of chemicals; usually characterized by erythema, edema, and vesiculation of the exposed or contacted site, and in some cases acne or pigmentary disturbances.
- d. combustionis inflammation of the skin following a burn.
- contact d. a T lymphocyte–mediated d. (type IV hypersensitivity) resulting from cutaneous contact with a specific allergen (allergic contact d.) or irritant (nonallergic contact d.). SYN: contact hypersensitivity (1).
- contagious pustular d. SYN: orf virus.
- cosmetic d. a cutaneous eruption that results from the application of a cosmetic; due to allergic sensitization or primary irritation.
- diaper d. colloquially referred to as diaper rash; d. of thighs and buttocks resulting from exposure to urine and feces in infants' diapers. Formerly attributed to ammonia formation; moisture, bacterial growth, and alkalinity may all induce lesions. SEE ALSO: intertrigo. SYN: diaper rash.
- d. exfoliativa infantum, d. exfoliativa neonatorum a generalized pyoderma accompanied by exfoliative d., with constitutional symptoms, affecting young infants, which may result from atopic d., Leiner disease, or staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. SYN: impetigo neonatorum (1).
- exfoliative d. rapidly extending erythema followed in a few days by generalized exfoliation with scaling of the skin and associated in some cases with lymphadenopathy or loss of water and electrolytes; may be a drug reaction or associated with various benign dermatoses, lupus erythematosus, or lymphoma, or be of undetermined cause. SYN: Wilson disease (2).
- exudative discoid and lichenoid d. discoid resembling an exudative form of nummular eczema, occurs especially in Jewish males, with oval lesions on the penis, trunk, and face. SYN: Sulzberger-Garbe disease, Sulzberger-Garbe syndrome.
- factitial d. SYN: d. artefacta.
- d. gangrenosa infantum a bullous or pustular eruption, of uncertain origin, followed by necrotic ulcers or extensive gangrene in children under 2 years of age; if untreated, death may result from hematogenous infection, such as liver abscess. SYN: disseminated cutaneous gangrene, ecthyma gangrenosum, pemphigus gangrenosus (1).
- d. herpetiformis a chronic disease of the skin marked by a symmetric itching eruption of vesicles and papules that occur in groups; relapses are common; associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and IgA together with neutrophils beneath the epidermis of lesional and perilesional skin. SYN: Duhring disease.
- d. hiemalis SYN: winter itch.
- infectious eczematoid d. an inflammatory reaction of skin adjacent to the site of a pyogenic infection; e.g., purulent otitis, the area around a colostomy, or intranasal infection; thought to spread by autoinoculation.
- irritant contact d. skin reactions ranging from erythema and scaling to necrotic burns resulting from nonimmunologic damage by chemicals in contact with the skin immediately or repeatedly.
- mango d. a perioral contact d. resulting from sensitization to the resinous coating on the peel of the mango fruit.
- meadow d., meadow grass d. a photoallergic reaction to contact with a plant containing furocoumarin in which the bizarre configuration of the eruption is that of the streaky pattern of the plant contact; often occurs after sunbathing.
- d. medicamentosa SYN: drug eruption.
- nickel d. allergic d. due to contact with, or in some cases ingestion of, nickel or other metals containing nickel ( e.g., stainless steel).
- d. nodosa a papular eruption on the legs, related to onchocerciasis (q.v.).
- d. nodularis necrotica a recurrent eruption of vesicles, papules, and papulonecrotic lesions on the buttocks and extensor surfaces of the extremities, accompanied by fever, sore throat, diarrhea, and eosinophilia; probably a variant of vasculitis, it can be of varying and increasing severity and duration and can occasionally involve the heart, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. SYN: Werther disease.
- nummular d. SYN: nummular eczema.
- papular d. of pregnancy intensely pruritic papular eruption of torso and extremities occurring throughout pregnancy, with no systemic toxicity; may be similar to pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy.
- d. pediculoides ventricosus SYN: straw itch.
- primary irritant d. a frequently cumulative reaction of irritation on exposure of the skin to substances which are toxic to epidermal or connective tissue cells; lesions are usually erythematous and papular, but can be purulent or necrotic, depending on the nature of the toxic material applied.
- rat mite d. an eruption of wheals, papules, or vesicles caused by the rat mite.
- d. repens SYN: pustulosis palmaris et plantaris. [L. creeping]
- rhus d. contact d. caused by cutaneous exposure to urushiol from species of Toxicodendron (Rhus), such as poison ivy, oak, or sumac.
- sandal strap d. allergic contact on the dorsal surfaces of the feet, caused by synthetic rubber sandal straps or additives to natural rubber.
- schistosomal d. a sensitization response to repeated cutaneous invasion by cercariae of bird, mammal, or human schistosomes. SYN: swimmer's itch, water itch (2).
- seborrheic d., d. seborrheica a common scaly macular eruption that occurs primarily on the face, scalp (dandruff), and other areas of increased sebaceous gland secretion, especially during infancy and after puberty; the lesions are covered with a slightly adherent oily scale. Effectiveness of treatment with betaconazole supports an etiologic role for Pityrosporum ovale infection. SYN: seborrheic eczema, Unna disease.
- solar d. a d. in photosensitive persons caused by exposure to the sun's rays.
- stasis d. erythema and scaling of the lower extremities due to impaired venous circulation, seen commonly in older women or secondary to deep vein thrombosis, the latter with rapid onset and swelling.
- subcorneal pustular d. SYN: subcorneal pustular dermatosis.
- traumatic d. any d. caused by an irritant substance or by a physical agent.
- d. vegetans a benign fungating granulomatous mass caused by chronic pyogenic infection. SYN: pyoderma vegetans.

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der·ma·ti·tis .dər-mə-'tīt-əs n, pl -ti·tis·es or -tit·i·des -'tit-ə-.dēz inflammation of the skin called also dermitis
der·ma·tit·ic -'tit-ik adj

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n.
an inflammatory condition of the skin caused by outside agents (compare eczema, an endogenous disease in which such agents do not play a primary role). Primary irritant dermatitis may occur in anyone who has sufficient contact with such irritants as acids, alkalis, solvents, and (especially) detergents. It is the commonest cause of occupational dermatitis in hairdressers, nurses, cooks, etc. (See also napkin rash.) In allergic contact dermatitis skin changes resembling those of eczema develop as a delayed reaction to contact with a particular allergen, which may be present at low concentrations. The commonest example in women is nickel dermatitis from jewellery, jeans studs, etc.; in men chromium dermatitis is relatively common (cement is the usual source). Treatment of dermatitis depends on removing the cause, which is not always possible.
Dermatitis herpetiformis is an uncommon very itchy rash with symmetrical blistering, especially on the knees, elbows, buttocks, and shoulders. It is associated with gluten sensitivity and responds well to treatment with dapsone.

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der·ma·ti·tis (dur″mə-tiґtis) pl. dermatiґtides [dermat- + -itis] inflammation of the skin.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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