glutamate


glutamate
- g. acetyltransferase 1. an enzyme catalyzing transfer of an acetyl group from N2-acetylornithine to l-g. forming l-ornithine and N-acetyl-l-g., an activator of the urea cycle; 2. an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to l-g. to form coenzyme A and N-acetyl-L-g., which is an activator of the urea cycle. SYN: ornithine acetyltransferase.
- g. decarboxylase (GAD) a carboxy-lyase converting l-g. to 4-aminobutyrate and CO2 as well as l-aspartate to 3-aminopropanoate and CO2; a defect in the binding of this protein's coenzyme is believed to be the cause of pyridoxine dependency with seizures. SYN: aspartate 1-decarboxylase.
- g. dehydrogenases enzymes that catalyze the reaction of l-g., H2O, and NAD+ (or NADP+ in some cases) producing α-ketoglutarate (2-oxoglutarate), ammonia, and NADH; in mammals, this is the prime contributor to oxidative deamination. SYN: glutamic acid dehydrogenases.
- g. formiminotransferase an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the formimino moiety of N-formimino-l-g. to tetrahydrofolate; a deficiency of this enzyme will lead to elevated formiminoglutamate levels.
- g. γ-semialdehyde an intermediate in l-proline and l-ornithine metabolism; becomes elevated in type II hyperprolinemia.
- g. synthase an enzyme that converts l-glutamine, α-ketoglutarate, and NADH (in some cases, NADPH) to two l- glutamates and NAD+ (or NADP+); apparently, a nonmammalian enzyme. In some plants this is a ferredoxin-dependent reaction.

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glu·ta·mate 'glüt-ə-.māt n a salt or ester of glutamic acid specif a salt or ester of levorotatory glutamic acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter see MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE

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glu·ta·mate (glooґtə-māt) a salt, ester, or anionic form of glutamic acid; glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Medical dictionary. 2011.

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  • glutamate — [ glytamat ] n. m. • 1898; du rad. de glutamique ♦ Chim. Sel de l acide glutamique. Le glutamate de sodium, ou absolt le glutamate, est utilisé comme agent de sapidité dans la cuisine asiatique. ● glutamate nom masculin Sel ou ester de l acide… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Glutamate — Magnesium L Diglutamat Mononatrium L Glutamat …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Glutamate —   [nach Glutamin gebildet], Singular Glutamat das, (e)s, Glutaminate, die Ester und Salze der Glutaminsäure. Die Magnesium , Calcium und Kaliumsalze werden als Kochsalzersatz für diätetische Lebensmittel verwendet. Das Natriumsalz dient v …   Universal-Lexikon

  • glutamate — 1876, from glutamic acid (see GLUTEN (Cf. gluten)) + ATE (Cf. ate) (3) …   Etymology dictionary

  • glutamate — ► NOUN Biochemistry ▪ a salt or ester of an amino acid (glutamic acid) which is a constituent of many proteins. ORIGIN from glutamic acid, from GLUTEN(Cf. ↑gluten) + AMINE(Cf. ↑amine) …   English terms dictionary

  • glutamate — [glo͞ot′ə māt΄] n. a salt or ester of glutamic acid …   English World dictionary

  • Glutamate — Acide glutamique Acide glutamique Général …   Wikipédia en Français

  • glutamate — noun Date: 1876 a salt or ester of glutamic acid; specifically a salt or ester of levorotatory glutamic acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter compare monosodium glutamate …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • glutamate — Major fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. See glutamate receptor. Also the excitatory neuromuscular transmitter in arthropod skeletal muscles …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • glutamate — [[t]glu͟ːtəmeɪt[/t]] see monosodium glutamate …   English dictionary